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  1. Here, we demonstrate that polarization properties show a wide diversity depending on viewing angles. To simulate images of a supermassive black hole and surrounding plasma, we performed a full-polarimetric general relativistic radiative transfer based on three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics models with moderate magnetic strengths. Under an assumption of a hot-jet and cold-disk in the electron temperature prescription, we confirmed a typical scenario where polarized synchrotron emissions from the funnel jet experience Faraday rotation and conversion in the equatorial disk. Further, we found that linear polarization vectors are inevitably depolarized for edge-on-like observers, whereas a portion of vectors survive and reach the observers in face-on-like cases. We also found that circular polarization components have persistent signs in the face-on cases, and changing signs in the edge-on cases. It is confirmed that these features are smoothly connected via intermediate viewing-angle cases. These results are due to Faraday rotation/conversion for different viewing angles, and suggest that a combination of linear and circular polarimetry can give a constraint on the inclination between the observer and black hole’s (and/or disk’s) rotating-axis and plasma properties in the jet–disk structure. These can also lead to a more statistical and unified interpretation for a diversity of emissions from active galactic nuclei. 
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  2. Abstract

    For testing different electron temperature (Te) prescriptions in general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) simulations through observations, we propose to utilize linear polarization (LP) and circular polarization (CP) images. We calculate the polarization images based on a semi-magnetically arrested disk GRMHD model for variousTeparameters, bearing M87 in mind. We find an LP–CP separation in the images of the low-Tedisk cases at 230GHz; namely, the LP flux mainly originates from downstream of the jet, and the CP flux comes from the counter-side jet, while the total intensity is maximum at the jet base. This can be understood as follows: although the LP flux is generated through synchrotron emission widely around the black hole, most of the LP flux from the jet base does not reach the observer, since it undergoes Faraday rotation (Te2) when passing through the outer cold disk and is thus depolarized. Hence, only the LP flux from the downstream (not passing the cold dense plasmas) can survive. Meanwhile, the CP flux is generated from the LP flux by Faraday conversion ( ∝Te) in the inner hot region. Stronger CP flux is thus observed from the counter-side jet. Moreover, the LP–CP separation is more enhanced at a lower frequency, such as 86 GHz, but is rather weak at 43 GHz, since the media in the latter case is optically thick for synchrotron self-absorption so that all of the fluxes should come from the photosphere. The same is true for cases with higher mass accretion rates and/or larger inclination angles.

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  3. Abstract With unprecedented angular resolution, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has opened a new era of black hole studies. We have previously calculated the expected polarization images of M 87* with EHT observations in mind. There, we demonstrated that circular polarization (CP) images, as well as linear polarization (LP) maps, can convey quite useful information, such as the flow structure and magnetic field configuration around the black hole. In this paper, we make new predictions for the cases in which disk emission dominates over jet emission, bearing Sgr A* in mind. Here we set the proton-to-electron temperature ratio of the disk component to be Tp/Te ∼ 2 so as to suppress jet emission relative to emission from accretion flow. As a result, we obtain ring-like images and triple-forked images around the black hole for face-on and edge-on cases, respectively. We also find significant CP components in the images (≳10% in fraction), with both positive and negative signs, amplified through the Faraday conversion, not depending sensitively on the inclination angles. Furthermore, we find a “separatrix” in the CP images, across which the sign of CP is reversed and on which the LP flux is brightest, that can be attributed to the helical magnetic field structure in the disk. These results indicate that future full polarization EHT images are a quite useful tracer of the magnetic field structure. We also discuss to what extent we will be able to extract information regarding magnetic field configurations under the scattering in the interstellar plasma, in future EHT polarimetric observations of Sgr A*. 
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