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  1. Abstract Observational evidence of two extratropical pathways to forcing tropical convective disturbances is documented through a statistical analysis of satellite-derived OLR and ERA5 reanalysis. The forcing mechanism and the resulting disturbances are found to strongly depend on the structure of the background zonal wind. Although Rossby wave propagation is prohibited in easterlies, modeling studies have shown that extratropical forcing can still excite equatorial waves through resonance between the tropics and extratropics. Here this “remote” forcing pathway is investigated for the first time in the context of convectively coupled Kelvin waves over the tropical Pacific during northern summer. The extratropical forcing is manifested by eddy momentum flux convergence that arises when extratropical eddies propagate into the subtropics and encounter their critical line. This nonlinear forcing has similar wavenumbers and frequencies with Kelvin waves and excites them by projecting onto their meridional eigenstructure in zonal wind, as a form of resonance. This resonance is also evidenced by a momentum budget analysis, which reveals the nonlinear forcing term is essential for maintenance of the waves, while the remaining linear terms are essential for propagation. In contrast, the “local” pathway of extratropical forcing entails the presence of a westerly duct during northern winter that permits Rossby waves to propagate into the equatorial east Pacific, while precluding any sort of resonance with Kelvin waves due to Doppler shifting effects. The intruding disturbances primarily excite tropical “cloud plumes” through quasigeostrophic forcing, while maintaining their extratropical nature. This study demonstrates the multiple roles of the extratropics in forcing in tropical circulations and illuminates how tropical–extratropical interactions and extratropical basic states can provide be a source of predictability at the S2S time scale. Significance Statement This study seeks to understand how circulations in the midlatitudes excite the weather systems in the tropics. Results show that the mechanisms, as well as the types of tropical weather systems excited, are strongly dependent on the mean large-scale wind structure. In particular, when the large-scale wind blows from east to west, a special type of eastward-moving tropical weather system, the Kelvin wave, is excited owing to its resonance with remote eastward-moving weather systems in the extratropics. On the contrary, when the average wind blows from west to east, midlatitude systems are observed to intrude into the lower latitudes and directly force tropical convection, the cloud plumes, while maintaining their extratropical nature. These results speak to how the midlatitudes can excite distinct types of tropical weather systems under different climatological wind regimes. Understanding these tropical weather systems and their interactions with the midlatitudes may ultimately help to improve predictions of weather beyond 2 weeks. 
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  2. Abstract

    Weather forecasts made with imperfect models contain state‐dependent errors. Data assimilation (DA) partially corrects these errors with new information from observations. As such, the corrections, or “analysis increments,” produced by the DA process embed information about model errors. An attempt is made here to extract that information to improve numerical weather prediction. Neural networks (NNs) are trained to predict corrections to the systematic error in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's FV3‐GFS model based on a large set of analysis increments. A simple NN focusing on an atmospheric column significantly improves the estimated model error correction relative to a linear baseline. Leveraging large‐scale horizontal flow conditions using a convolutional NN, when compared to the simple column‐oriented NN, does not improve skill in correcting model error. The sensitivity of model error correction to forecast inputs is highly localized by vertical level and by meteorological variable, and the error characteristics vary across vertical levels. Once trained, the NNs are used to apply an online correction to the forecast during model integration. Improvements are evaluated both within a cycled DA system and across a collection of 10‐day forecasts. It is found that applying state‐dependent NN‐predicted corrections to the model forecast improves the overall quality of DA and improves the 10‐day forecast skill at all lead times.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Boreal‐wintertime hindcasts in the Unified Forecast System with the tropics nudged toward reanalysis improve United States (US) West Coast precipitation forecasts at Weeks 3–4 lead times when compared to those without nudging. To diagnose the origin of these improvements, a multivariate k‐means clustering method is used to group hindcasts into subsets by their initial conditions. One cluster characterized by an initially strong Aleutian Low demonstrates larger improvements at Weeks 3–4 with nudging compared to the others. The greater improvements with nudging for this cluster are related to model errors in simulating the interaction between the Aleutian Low and the teleconnection patterns associated with the Madden‐Julian oscillation (MJO) and El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Improving forecasts of tropical intraseasonal precipitation, especially during early MJO phases under non‐cold ENSO, may be important for producing better Weeks 3–4 precipitation forecasts for the US West Coast.

     
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  4. Abstract

    To explore the interactions among column processes in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), the single‐column version of CAM (SCAM) is integrated for 1000 days in radiative‐convective equilibrium (RCE) with tropical values of boundary conditions, spanning a parameter or configuration space of model physics versions (v5 vs. v6), vertical resolution (standard and 60 levels), sea surface temperature (SST), and some interpretation‐driven experiments. The simulated time‐mean climate is reasonable, near observations and RCE of a cyclic cloud‐resolving model. Updraft detrainment in the deep convection scheme produces distinctive grid‐scale structures in humidity and cloud, which also interact with radiative transfer processes. These grid artifacts average out in multi‐column RCE results reported elsewhere, illustrating the nuts‐and‐bolts interpretability that SCAM adds to the hierarchy of model configurations. Multi‐day oscillations of precipitation arise from descent of warm convection‐capping layers starting near the tropopause, eventually reset by a burst of convective deepening. Experiments reveal how these oscillations depend critically on an internal parameter that controls the number of neutral buoyancy levels allowed for determining cloud top and computing dilute convective available potential energy in the deep convection scheme, and merely modified a little by disabling cloud‐base radiation (heating of cloud base). This strong dependence of transient behavior in 1D on this parameter will be tested in the second part of this work, in which SCAM is coupled to a parameterized dynamics of two‐dimensional, linearized gravity wave, and in the 3D simulations in future study.

     
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