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  2. Abstract Abstract: Users trust IoT apps to control and automate their smart devices. These apps necessarily have access to sensitive data to implement their functionality. However, users lack visibility into how their sensitive data is used, and often blindly trust the app developers. In this paper, we present IoTWATcH, a dynamic analysis tool that uncovers the privacy risks of IoT apps in real-time. We have designed and built IoTWATcH through a comprehensive IoT privacy survey addressing the privacy needs of users. IoTWATCH operates in four phases: (a) it provides users with an interface to specify their privacy preferences at app install time, (b) it adds extra logic to an app’s source code to collect both IoT data and their recipients at runtime, (c) it uses Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to construct a model that classifies IoT app data into intuitive privacy labels, and (d) it informs the users when their preferences do not match the privacy labels, exposing sensitive data leaks to users. We implemented and evaluated IoTWATcH on real IoT applications. Specifically, we analyzed 540 IoT apps to train the NLP model and evaluate its effectiveness. IoTWATcH yields an average 94.25% accuracy in classifying IoT app data into privacy labels with only 105 ms additional latency to an app’s execution. 
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  3. One-time login process in conventional authentication systems does not guarantee that the identified user is the actual user throughout the session. However, it is necessary to re-verify the user identity periodically throughout a login session, which is lacking in existing one-time login systems. In this paper, we introduce a usable and reliable Wearable-Assisted Continuous Authentication (WACA), which relies on the sensor-based keystroke dynamics and the authentication data is acquired through the built-in sensors of a wearable (e.g., smartwatch) while the user is typing. The acquired data is periodically and transparently compared with the registered profile of the initially logged-in user with one-way classifiers. With this, WACA continuously ensures that the current user is the user who logged-in initially. We implemented the WACA framework and evaluated its performance on real devices with real users. The empirical evaluation of WACA reveals that WACA is feasible and its error rate is as low as 1% with 30 seconds of processing time and 2 -3% for 20 seconds. The computational overhead is minimal. Furthermore, WACA is capable of identifying insider threats with very high accuracy (99.2%). 
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