Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher.
Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?
Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.
Our system classifies audio from microphones worn by the teacher in order to determine (1) whether the teacher is addressing the whole class or talking to individuals or groups of students. In the latter case, it determines (2) whether the teacher is giving formative feedback, giving corrective feedback, chatting socially, or addressing administrative or workflow concerns. This paper reports the initial accuracy of this system against human coding of middle school math classroom behavior. We also compared audio collected through professional hardware versus more accessible alternatives.
FACT (Formative Assessment with Computational Technology) is an intelligent orchestration system. That is, because it helps the teacher manage the workflow of a complicated set of activities in the classroom, it is an orchestration system. Because it conducts tasks-specific and domain-specific analyses of the students’ mathematical products and their group interactions, it is more intelligent than other orchestration systems. From analyzing videos of our iterative development trials, we realized that too many students needed help simultaneously, but the teacher could only visit one group at a time. Thus, we modified FACT to send a few messages to the students directlymore »
Collaboration is a 21st Century skill as well as an effective method for learning, so detection of collaboration is important for both assessment and instruction. Speech-based collaboration detection can be quite accurate but collecting the speech of students in classrooms can raise privacy issues. An alternative is to send only whether or not the student is speaking. That is, the speech signal is processed at the microphone by a voice activity detector before being transmitted to the collaboration detector. Because the transmitted signal is binary (1 = speaking, 0 = silence), this method mitigates privacy issues. However, it may harmmore »