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  1. In this paper, we present the design, optimization, and implementation of a sub-wavelength grating (SWG) multi-mode interference coupler (MMI) on the silicon nitride photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform with a significantly enhanced bandwidth compared to the conventional MMI. We extend the SWG MMI theory, previously presented for the silicon-on-insulator platform, to the Si3N4/SiO2platform. Our approach involves an initial parameter optimization for a non-paired design, followed by a shift to a paired design that offers a smaller footprint and a broader bandwidth. The optimized SWG MMI exhibits a 1 dB bandwidth of 300 nm for both the insertion loss and power imbalance, making it a significant addition to silicon nitride photonics.

     
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  2. Abstract

    M82 is an archetypal starburst galaxy in the local Universe. The central burst of star formation, thought to be triggered by M82's interaction with other members in the M81 group, is driving a multiphase galaxy-scale wind away from the plane of the disk that has been studied across the electromagnetic spectrum. Here, we present new velocity-resolved observations of the [Cii] 158μm line in the central disk and the southern outflow of M82 using the upGREAT instrument on board SOFIA. We also report the first detections of velocity-resolved (ΔV= 10 km s−1) [Cii] emission in the outflow of M82 at projected distances of ≈1–2 kpc south of the galaxy center. We compare the [Cii] line profiles to observations of CO and Hiand find that likely the majority (>55%) of the [Cii] emission in the outflow is associated with the neutral atomic medium. We find that the fraction of [Cii] actually outflowing from M82 is small compared to the bulk gas outside the midplane (which may be in a halo or tidal streamers), which has important implications for observations of [Cii] outflows at higher redshift. Finally, by comparing the observed ratio of the [Cii] and CO intensities to models of photodissociation regions, we estimate that the far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field in the disk is ∼103.5G0, in agreement with previous estimates. In the outflow, however, the FUV radiation field is 2–3 orders of magnitudes lower, which may explain the high fraction of [Cii] arising from the neutral medium in the wind.

     
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  3. To provide a solution to the issue of the non-flat focal surface in traditional Rowland AWGs, we have designed and implemented a Si3N4three-stigmatic-point arrayed waveguide grating (TSP AWG) with three inputs, and a spectral resolving power over 17,000 has been achieved experimentally. The flat focal surface of this AWG can accommodate a butt-coupled detector array positioned at the output facet without any reduction of the resolving power of the edge channels. Therefore, it is particularly advantageous to some astronomical applications which require an AWG as a light-dispersing component to obtain a complete 2D spectrum. As a proof-of-concept for next generation devices, the multi-input aspect of the design accommodates multiple single-mode fibers coming into the AWG. In addition, because the device is implemented on a high-index-contrast platform (Si3N4/SiO2), a compact size of ∼9.3 × 9.3 mm2is achieved.

     
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  4. Abstract

    Feedback likely plays a crucial role in resolving discrepancies between observations and theoretical predictions of dwarf galaxy properties. Stellar feedback was once believed to be sufficient to explain these discrepancies, but it has thus far failed to fully reconcile theory and observations. The recent discovery of energetic galaxy-wide outflows in dwarf galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) suggests that AGN feedback may have a larger role in the evolution of dwarf galaxies than previously suspected. In order to assess the relative importance of stellar versus AGN feedback in these galaxies, we perform a detailed Keck/KCWI optical integral field spectroscopic study of a sample of low-redshift star-forming (SF) dwarf galaxies that show outflows in ionized gas in their Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra. We characterize the outflows and compare them to observations of AGN-driven outflows in dwarfs. We find that SF dwarfs have outflow components that have comparable widths (W80) to those of outflows in AGN dwarfs, but are much less blueshifted, indicating that SF dwarfs have significantly slower outflows than their AGN counterparts. Outflows in SF dwarfs are spatially resolved and significantly more extended than those in AGN dwarfs. The mass-loss, momentum, and energy rates of star-formation-driven outflows are much lower than those of AGN-driven outflows. Our results indicate that AGN feedback in the form of gas outflows may play an important role in dwarf galaxies and should be considered along with SF feedback in models of dwarf galaxy evolution.

     
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  5. Abstract

    We present new observations of the central 1 kpc of the M82 starburst obtained with the James Webb Space Telescope near-infrared camera instrument at a resolutionθ∼ 0.″05–0.″1 (∼1–2 pc). The data comprises images in three mostly continuum filters (F140M, F250M, and F360M), and filters that contain [Feii] (F164N), H2v= 1 → 0 (F212N), and the 3.3μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature (F335M). We find prominent plumes of PAH emission extending outward from the central starburst region, together with a network of complex filamentary substructures and edge-brightened bubble-like features. The structure of the PAH emission closely resembles that of the ionized gas, as revealed in Paschenαand free–free radio emission. We discuss the origin of the structure, and suggest the PAHs are embedded in a combination of neutral, molecular, and photoionized gas.

     
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  6. Abstract

    We use a sample of 27 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at redshiftz= 2–6 to probe the outflows in their respective host galaxies (log(M*/M) ∼ 9–11) and search for possible relations between the outflow properties and those of the host galaxies, such asM*, the star formation rate (SFR), and the specific SFR (sSFR). First, we consider three outflow properties: outflow column density (Nout), maximum outflow velocity (Vmax), and normalized maximum velocity (Vnorm=Vmax/Vcirc,halo, whereVcirc,halois the halo circular velocity). We observe clear trends ofNoutandVmaxwith increasing SFR in high-ion-traced outflows, with a stronger (>3σ)Vmax–SFR correlation. We find that the estimated mass outflow rate and momentum flux of the high-ion outflows scale with SFR and can be supported by the momentum imparted by star formation (supernovae and stellar winds). The kinematic correlations of high-ion-traced outflows with SFR are similar to those observed for star-forming galaxies at low redshifts. The correlations with SFR are weaker in low-ion outflows. This, along with the lower detection fraction in low-ion outflows, indicates that the outflow is primarily high-ion dominated. We also observe a strong (>3σ) trend of normalized velocity (Vnorm) decreasing with halo mass and increasing with sSFR, suggesting that outflows from low-mass halos and high-sSFR galaxies are most likely to escape and enrich the outer circumgalactic medium (CGM) and intergalactic medium with metals. By comparing the CGM–GRB stacks with those of starbursts atz∼ 2 andz∼ 0.1, we find that over a broad redshift range, the outflow strength strongly depends on the main-sequence offset at the respective redshifts, rather than simply the SFR.

     
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  8. Abstract

    The center of the nearby galaxy NGC 253 hosts a population of more than a dozen super star clusters (SSCs) that are still in the process of forming. The majority of the star formation of the burst is concentrated in these SSCs, and the starburst is powering a multiphase outflow from the galaxy. In this work, we measure the 350 GHz dust continuum emission toward the center of NGC 253 at 47 mas (0.8 pc) resolution using data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We report the detection of 350 GHz (dust) continuum emission in the outflow for the first time, associated with the prominent South-West streamer. In this feature, the dust emission has a width of ≈8 pc, is located at the outer edge of the CO emission, and corresponds to a molecular gas mass of ∼(8–17)×106M. In the starburst nucleus, we measure the resolved radial profiles, sizes, and molecular gas masses of the SSCs. Compared to previous work at the somewhat lower spatial resolution, the SSCs here break apart into smaller substructures with radii 0.4–0.7 pc. In projection, the SSCs, dust, and dense molecular gas appear to be arranged as a thin, almost linear, structure roughly 155 pc in length. The morphology and kinematics of this structure can be well explained as gas followingx2orbits at the center of a barred potential. We constrain the morpho-kinematic arrangement of the SSCs themselves, finding that an elliptical, angular-momentum-conserving ring is a good description of both the morphology and kinematics of the SSCs.

     
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  9. Abstract We present the ALMA detection of molecular outflowing gas in the central regions of NGC 4945, one of the nearest starbursts and also one of the nearest hosts of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We detect four outflow plumes in CO J = 3 − 2 at ∼0.″3 resolution that appear to correspond to molecular gas located near the edges of the known ionized outflow cone and its (unobserved) counterpart behind the disk. The fastest and brightest of these plumes has emission reaching observed line-of-sight projected velocities of over 450 km s −1 beyond systemic, equivalent to an estimated physical outflow velocity v ≳ 600 km s −1 for the fastest emission. Most of these plumes have corresponding emission in HCN or HCO + J = 4 − 3. We discuss a kinematic model for the outflow emission where the molecular gas has the geometry of the ionized gas cone and shares the rotation velocity of the galaxy when ejected. We use this model to explain the velocities we observe, constrain the physical speed of the ejected material, and account for the fraction of outflowing gas that is not detected due to confusion with the galaxy disk. We estimate a total molecular mass outflow rate M ̇ mol ∼ 20 M ⊙ yr −1 flowing through a surface within 100 pc of the disk midplane, likely driven by a combination of the central starburst and AGN. 
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