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  1. Abstract

    Mechanisms of hexagonal close-packed (HCP) to body-centered cubic (BCC) phase transformation in Mg single crystals are observed using a combination of polychromatic beam Laue diffraction and monochromatic beam powder diffraction techniques under quasi-hydrostatic pressures of up to 58 ± 2 GPa at ambient temperature. Although experiments were performed with both He and Ne pressure media, crystals inevitably undergo plastic deformation upon loading to 40–44 GPa. The plasticity is accommodated by dislocation glide causing local misorientations of up to 1°–2°. The selected crystals are tracked by mapping Laue diffraction spots up to the onset of the HCP to BCC transformation, which is determined to be at a pressure of 56.6 ± 2 GPa. Intensity of the Laue reflections from HCP crystals rapidly decrease but no reflections from crystalline BCC phase are observed with a further increase of pressure. Nevertheless, the powder diffraction shows the formation of 110 BCC peak at 56.6 GPa. The peak intensity increases at 59.7 GPa. Upon the full transformation, a powder-like BCC aggregate is formed revealing the destructive nature of the HCP to BCC transformation in single crystals of Mg.

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  2. Cerium oxide (ceria, CeO2) is frequently used as a standard in applications such as synchrotron and x-ray free electron lasers for calibrating x-ray wavelengths and offers the potential for understanding the high pressure properties and deformation mechanisms in a wide range of similar face centered cubic (fcc) materials. In this study, the pressure dependence of the strength of ceria was investigated up to 38 GPa using angle dispersive x-ray diffraction in a radial geometry in a diamond anvil cell. In this experiment, the difference in the stress along the axis of compression and perpendicular to the direction of compression can be determined, giving a quantity known as the differential stress. It was found that the differential stress (t), a measure of the lower bound for yield strength, initially increases rapidly from 0.35 ± 0.06 GPa to 2.2 ± 0.4 GPa at pressures of 1.8 and 3.8 GPa, respectively. Above 4 GPa, t increases more slowly to 13.8 ± 2.6 GPa at a pressure of 38 GPa. The changes in the preferred orientation (texture) of CeO2 with pressure were also measured, allowing for the determination of active deformation mechanisms using an elasto-viscoplastic self-consistent model (EVPSC). It was found that as pressure increased, the [001] direction had a slight preferred orientation along the axis of compression. Our EVPSC model of experimental fiber (cylindrically symmetric) textures and lattice strains were most consistent with dominant slip activity along {111}⟨11¯0⟩. 
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  3. Abstract

    Crystallographic theory based on energy minimization suggests austenite-twinned martensite interfaces with specific orientation, which are confirmed experimentally for various materials. Pressure-induced phase transformation (PT) from semiconducting Si-I to metallic Si-II, due to very large and anisotropic transformation strain, may challenge this theory. Here, unexpected nanostructure evolution during Si-I → Si-II PT is revealed by combining molecular dynamics (MD), crystallographic theory, generalized for strained crystals, and in situ real-time Laue X-ray diffraction (XRD). Twinned Si-II, consisting of two martensitic variants, and unexpected nanobands, consisting of alternating strongly deformed and rotated residual Si-I and third variant of Si-II, form$$\{111\}$${111}interface with Si-I and produce almost self-accommodated nanostructure despite the large transformation volumetric strain of$$-0.237$$0.237. The interfacial bands arrest the$$\{111\}$${111}interfaces, leading to repeating nucleation-growth-arrest process and to growth by propagating$$\{110\}$${110}interface, which (as well as$$\{111\}$${111}interface) do not appear in traditional crystallographic theory.

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  4. null (Ed.)