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  1. Abstract We provide the first combined cosmological analysis of the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck cluster catalogs. The aim is to provide an independent calibration for Planck scaling relations, exploiting the cosmological constraining power of the SPT-SZ cluster catalog and its dedicated weak lensing (WL) and X-ray follow-up observations. We build a new version of the Planck cluster likelihood. In the ν Λ CDM scenario, focusing on the mass slope and mass bias of Planck scaling relations, we find α SZ = 1.49 − 0.10 + 0.07 and 1 − b SZ = 0.69 − 0.14 + 0.07 , respectively. The results for the mass slope show a ∼4 σ departure from the self-similar evolution, α SZ ∼ 1.8. This shift is mainly driven by the matter density value preferred by SPT data, Ω m = 0.30 ± 0.03, lower than the one obtained by Planck data alone, Ω m = 0.37 − 0.06 + 0.02 . The mass bias constraints are consistent both with outcomes of hydrodynamical simulations and external WL calibrations, (1 − b ) ∼ 0.8, and with results required by the Planck cosmic microwave background cosmology, (1 − b ) ∼ 0.6. From this analysis,more »we obtain a new catalog of Planck cluster masses M 500 . We estimate the ratio between the published Planck M SZ masses and our derived masses M 500 , as a “measured mass bias,” 1 − b M . We analyze the mass, redshift, and detection noise dependence of 1 − b M , finding an increasing trend toward high redshift and low mass. These results mimic the effect of departure from self-similarity in cluster evolution, showing different dependencies for the low-mass, high-mass, low- z , and high- z regimes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. ABSTRACT Star-forming galaxies are rich reservoirs of dust, both warm and cold. But the cold dust emission is faint alongside the relatively bright and ubiquitous warm dust emission. Recently, evidence for a very cold dust (VCD) component has also been revealed via millimetre/submillimetre (mm/sub-mm) photometry of some galaxies. This component, despite being the most massive of the three dust components in star-forming galaxies, is by virtue of its very low temperature, faint and hard to detect together with the relatively bright emission from warmer dust. Here, we analyse the dust content of a carefully selected sample of four galaxies detected by IRAS, WISE, and South Pole Telescope (SPT), whose spectral energy distributions (SEDs) were modelled to constrain their potential cold dust content. Low-frequency radio observations using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) were carried out to segregate cold dust emission from non-thermal emission in mm/sub-mm wavebands. We also carried out AstroSat/Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) observations for some galaxies to constrain their SED at shorter wavelengths so as to enforce energy balance for the SED modelling. We constructed their SEDs across a vast wavelength range (extending from UV to radio frequencies) by assembling global photometry from GALEX FUV + NUV, UVIT,more »Johnson BRI, 2MASS, WISE, IRAC, IRAS, AKARI, ISO PHOT, Planck HFI, SPT, and GMRT. The SEDs were modelled with cigale to estimate their basic properties, in particular to constrain the masses of their total and VCD components. Although the galaxies’ dust masses are dominated by warmer dust, there are hints of VCD in two of the targets, NGC 7496 and NGC 7590.« less
  3. Abstract We show the improvement to cosmological constraints from galaxy cluster surveys with the addition of cosmic microwave background (CMB)-cluster lensing data. We explore the cosmological implications of adding mass information from the 3.1 σ detection of gravitational lensing of the CMB by galaxy clusters to the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) selected galaxy cluster sample from the 2500 deg 2 SPT-SZ survey and targeted optical and X-ray follow-up data. In the ΛCDM model, the combination of the cluster sample with the Planck power spectrum measurements prefers σ 8 Ω m / 0.3 0.5 = 0.831 ± 0.020 . Adding the cluster data reduces the uncertainty on this quantity by a factor of 1.4, which is unchanged whether the 3.1 σ CMB-cluster lensing measurement is included or not. We then forecast the impact of CMB-cluster lensing measurements with future cluster catalogs. Adding CMB-cluster lensing measurements to the SZ cluster catalog of the ongoing SPT-3G survey is expected to improve the expected constraint on the dark energy equation of state w by a factor of 1.3 to σ ( w ) = 0.19. We find the largest improvements from CMB-cluster lensing measurements to be for σ 8 , where adding CMB-cluster lensing data tomore »the cluster number counts reduces the expected uncertainty on σ 8 by respective factors of 2.4 and 3.6 for SPT-3G and CMB-S4.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. ABSTRACT

    We search for the signature of cosmological shocks in stacked gas pressure profiles of galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Specifically, we stack the latest Compton-y maps from the 2500 deg2 SPT-SZ survey on the locations of clusters identified in that same data set. The sample contains 516 clusters with mean mass $\langle M_{\rm 200m}\rangle = 10^{14.9} \, {\rm M}_\odot$ and redshift 〈z〉 = 0.55. We analyse in parallel a set of zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations from the three hundred project. The SPT-SZ data show two features: (i) a pressure deficit at R/R200m = 1.08 ± 0.09, measured at 3.1σ significance and not observed in the simulations, and; (ii) a sharp decrease in pressure at R/R200m = 4.58 ± 1.24 at 2.0σ significance. The pressure deficit is qualitatively consistent with a shock-induced thermal non-equilibrium between electrons and ions, and the second feature is consistent with accretion shocks seen in previous studies. We split the cluster sample by redshift and mass, and find both features exist in all cases. There are also no significant differences in features along and across the cluster major axis, whose orientation roughly points towards filamentary structure. As a consistency test, we also analyse clusters from the Planck and Atacama Cosmologymore »Telescope Polarimeter surveys and find quantitatively similar features in the pressure profiles. Finally, we compare the accretion shock radius ($R_{\rm sh,\, acc}$) with existing measurements of the splashback radius (Rsp) for SPT-SZ and constrain the lower limit of the ratio, $R_{\rm sh,\, acc}/R_{\rm sp}\gt 2.16 \pm 0.59$.

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  5. ABSTRACT We present Gemini-S and Spitzer-IRAC optical-through-near-IR observations in the field of the SPT2349-56 proto-cluster at z = 4.3. We detect optical/IR counterparts for only 9 of the 14 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) previously identified by ALMA in the core of SPT2349-56. In addition, we detect four z ∼ 4 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) in the 30 arcsec-diameter region surrounding this proto-cluster core. Three of the four LBGs are new systems, while one appears to be a counterpart of one of the nine observed SMGs. We identify a candidate brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) with a stellar mass of $(3.2^{+2.3}_{-1.4})\times 10^{11}$ M⊙. The stellar masses of the eight other SMGs place them on, above, and below the main sequence of star formation at z ≈ 4.5. The cumulative stellar mass for the SPT2349-56 core is at least (12.2 ± 2.8) × 1011 M⊙, a sizeable fraction of the stellar mass in local BCGs, and close to the universal baryon fraction (0.19) relative to the virial mass of the core (1013 M⊙). As all 14 of these SMGs are destined to quickly merge, we conclude that the proto-cluster core has already developed a significant stellar mass at this early stage, comparable to z = 1 BCGs. Importantly, we also findmore »that the SPT2349-56 core structure would be difficult to uncover in optical surveys, with none of the ALMA sources being easily identifiable or constrained through g, r, and i colour selection in deep optical surveys and only a modest overdensity of LBGs over the more extended structure. SPT2349-56 therefore represents a truly dust-obscured phase of a massive cluster core under formation.« less
  6. Abstract

    We present component-separated maps of the primary cosmic microwave background/kinematic Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) amplitude and the thermal SZ Compton-yparameter, created using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Planck satellite. These maps, which cover the ∼2500 deg2of the southern sky imaged by the SPT-SZ survey, represent a significant improvement over previous such products available in this region by virtue of their higher angular resolution (1.′25for our highest-resolution Compton-ymaps) and lower noise at small angular scales. In this work we detail the construction of these maps using linear combination techniques, including our method for limiting the correlation of our lowest-noise Compton-ymap products with the cosmic infrared background. We perform a range of validation tests on these data products to test our sky modeling and combination algorithms, and we find good performance in all of these tests. Recognizing the potential utility of these data products for a wide range of astrophysical and cosmological analyses, including studies of the gas properties of galaxies, groups, and clusters, we make these products publicly available athttp://pole.uchicago.edu/public/data/sptsz_ymapand on the NASA/LAMBDA website.

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  8. Abstract We perform the first simultaneous Bayesian parameter inference and optimal reconstruction of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), using 100 deg 2 of polarization observations from the SPTpol receiver on the South Pole Telescope. These data reach noise levels as low as 5.8 μ K arcmin in polarization, which are low enough that the typically used quadratic estimator (QE) technique for analyzing CMB lensing is significantly suboptimal. Conversely, the Bayesian procedure extracts all lensing information from the data and is optimal at any noise level. We infer the amplitude of the gravitational lensing potential to be A ϕ = 0.949 ± 0.122 using the Bayesian pipeline, consistent with our QE pipeline result, but with 17% smaller error bars. The Bayesian analysis also provides a simple way to account for systematic uncertainties, performing a similar job as frequentist “bias hardening” or linear bias correction, and reducing the systematic uncertainty on A ϕ due to polarization calibration from almost half of the statistical error to effectively zero. Finally, we jointly constrain A ϕ along with A L , the amplitude of lensing-like effects on the CMB power spectra, demonstrating that the Bayesian method can be used to easilymore »infer parameters both from an optimal lensing reconstruction and from the delensed CMB, while exactly accounting for the correlation between the two. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the Bayesian approach on real data, and pave the way for future analysis of deep CMB polarization measurements with SPT-3G, Simons Observatory, and CMB-S4, where improvements relative to the QE can reach 1.5 times tighter constraints on A ϕ and seven times lower effective lensing reconstruction noise.« less
  9. Abstract

    We present the first measurements of asteroids in millimeter wavelength data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT), which is used primarily to study the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We analyze maps of two ∼270 deg2sky regions near the ecliptic plane, each observed with the SPTpol camera ∼100 times over 1 month. We subtract the mean of all maps of a given field, removing static sky signal, and then average the mean-subtracted maps at known asteroid locations. We detect three asteroids—(324) Bamberga, (13) Egeria, and (22) Kalliope—with signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of 11.2, 10.4, and 6.1, respectively, at 2.0 mm (150 GHz); we also detect (324) Bamberga with an S/N of 4.1 at 3.2 mm (95 GHz). We place constraints on these asteroids’ effective emissivities, brightness temperatures, and light-curve modulation amplitude. Our flux density measurements of (324) Bamberga and (13) Egeria roughly agree with predictions, while our measurements of (22) Kalliope suggest lower flux, corresponding to effective emissivities of 0.64 ± 0.11 at 2.0 and < 0.47 at 3.2 mm. We predict the asteroids detectable in other SPT data sets and find good agreement with detections of (772) Tanete and (1093) Freda in recent data from the SPT-3G camera, which hasmore »∼10× the mapping speed of SPTpol. This work is the first focused analysis of asteroids in data from CMB surveys, and it demonstrates we can repurpose historic and future data sets for asteroid studies. Future SPT measurements can help constrain the distribution of surface properties over a larger asteroid population.

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