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    The circum-galactic medium (CGM) can feasibly be mapped by multiwavelength surveys covering broad swaths of the sky. With multiple large data sets becoming available in the near future, we develop a likelihood-free Deep Learning technique using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to infer broad-scale physical properties of a galaxy’s CGM and its halo mass for the first time. Using CAMELS (Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations) data, including IllustrisTNG, SIMBA, and Astrid models, we train CNNs on Soft X-ray and 21-cm (H i) radio two-dimensional maps to trace hot and cool gas, respectively, around galaxies, groups, and clusters. Our CNNs offer the unique ability to train and test on ‘multifield’ data sets comprised of both H i and X-ray maps, providing complementary information about physical CGM properties and improved inferences. Applying eRASS:4 survey limits shows that X-ray is not powerful enough to infer individual haloes with masses log (Mhalo/M⊙) < 12.5. The multifield improves the inference for all halo masses. Generally, the CNN trained and tested on Astrid (SIMBA) can most (least) accurately infer CGM properties. Cross-simulation analysis – training on one galaxy formation model and testing on another – highlights the challenges of developing CNNs trained on a single model to marginalize over astrophysical uncertainties and perform robust inferences on real data. The next crucial step in improving the resulting inferences on the physical properties of CGM depends on our ability to interpret these deep-learning models.

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    We quantify the cosmological spread of baryons relative to their initial neighbouring dark matter distribution using thousands of state-of-the-art simulations from the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations (CAMELS) project. We show that dark matter particles spread relative to their initial neighbouring distribution owing to chaotic gravitational dynamics on spatial scales comparable to their host dark matter halo. In contrast, gas in hydrodynamic simulations spreads much further from the initial neighbouring dark matter owing to feedback from supernovae (SNe) and active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that large-scale baryon spread is very sensitive to model implementation details, with the fiducial simba model spreading ∼40 per cent of baryons >1 Mpc away compared to ∼10 per cent for the IllustrisTNG and astrid models. Increasing the efficiency of AGN-driven outflows greatly increases baryon spread while increasing the strength of SNe-driven winds can decrease spreading due to non-linear coupling of stellar and AGN feedback. We compare total matter power spectra between hydrodynamic and paired N-body simulations and demonstrate that the baryonic spread metric broadly captures the global impact of feedback on matter clustering over variations of cosmological and astrophysical parameters, initial conditions, and (to a lesser extent) galaxy formation models. Using symbolic regression, we find a function that reproduces the suppression of power by feedback as a function of wave number (k) and baryonic spread up to $k \sim 10\, h$ Mpc−1 in SIMBA while highlighting the challenge of developing models robust to variations in galaxy formation physics implementation.

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    Extracting information from the total matter power spectrum with the precision needed for upcoming cosmological surveys requires unraveling the complex effects of galaxy formation processes on the distribution of matter. We investigate the impact of baryonic physics on matter clustering at z = 0 using a library of power spectra from the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations project, containing thousands of $(25\, h^{-1}\, {\rm Mpc})^3$ volume realizations with varying cosmology, initial random field, stellar and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback strength and subgrid model implementation methods. We show that baryonic physics affects matter clustering on scales $k \gtrsim 0.4\, h\, \mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$ and the magnitude of this effect is dependent on the details of the galaxy formation implementation and variations of cosmological and astrophysical parameters. Increasing AGN feedback strength decreases halo baryon fractions and yields stronger suppression of power relative to N-body simulations, while stronger stellar feedback often results in weaker effects by suppressing black hole growth and therefore the impact of AGN feedback. We find a broad correlation between mean baryon fraction of massive haloes (M200c > 1013.5 M⊙) and suppression of matter clustering but with significant scatter compared to previous work owing to wider exploration of feedback parameters and cosmic variance effects. We show that a random forest regressor trained on the baryon content and abundance of haloes across the full mass range 1010 ≤ Mhalo/M⊙<1015 can predict the effect of galaxy formation on the matter power spectrum on scales k = 1.0–20.0 $h\, \mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$.

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    We present a new suite of over 1500 cosmological N-body simulations with varied warm dark matter (WDM) models ranging from 2.5 to 30 keV. We use these simulations to train Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to infer WDM particle masses from images of DM field data. Our fiducial setup can make accurate predictions of the WDM particle mass up to 7.5 keV with an uncertainty of ±0.5 keV at a 95 per cent confidence level from (25 h−1Mpc)2 maps. We vary the image resolution, simulation resolution, redshift, and cosmology of our fiducial setup to better understand how our model is making predictions. Using these variations, we find that our models are most dependent on simulation resolution, minimally dependent on image resolution, not systematically dependent on redshift, and robust to varied cosmologies. We also find that an important feature to distinguish between WDM models is present with a linear size between 100 and 200 h−1 kpc. We compare our fiducial model to one trained on the power spectrum alone and find that our field-level model can make two times more precise predictions and can make accurate predictions to two times as massive WDM particle masses when used on the same data. Overall, we find that the field-level data can be used to accurately differentiate between WDM models and contain more information than is captured by the power spectrum. This technique can be extended to more complex DM models and opens up new opportunities to explore alternative DM models in a cosmological environment.

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  5. Abstract Recent work has pointed out the potential existence of a tight relation between the cosmological parameter Ω m , at fixed Ω b , and the properties of individual galaxies in state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. In this paper, we investigate whether such a relation also holds for galaxies from simulations run with a different code that makes use of a distinct subgrid physics: Astrid. We also find that in this case, neural networks are able to infer the value of Ω m with a ∼10% precision from the properties of individual galaxies, while accounting for astrophysics uncertainties, as modeled in Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning (CAMELS). This tight relationship is present at all considered redshifts, z ≤ 3, and the stellar mass, the stellar metallicity, and the maximum circular velocity are among the most important galaxy properties behind the relation. In order to use this method with real galaxies, one needs to quantify its robustness: the accuracy of the model when tested on galaxies generated by codes different from the one used for training. We quantify the robustness of the models by testing them on galaxies from four different codes: IllustrisTNG, SIMBA, Astrid, and Magneticum. We show that the models perform well on a large fraction of the galaxies, but fail dramatically on a small fraction of them. Removing these outliers significantly improves the accuracy of the models across simulation codes. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 29, 2024

    Forward-modeling observables from galaxy simulations enables direct comparisons between theory and observations. To generate synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that include dust absorption, re-emission, and scattering, Monte Carlo radiative transfer is often used in post-processing on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis. However, this is computationally expensive, especially if one wants to make predictions for suites of many cosmological simulations. To alleviate this computational burden, we have developed a radiative transfer emulator using an artificial neural network (ANN), ANNgelina, that can reliably predict SEDs of simulated galaxies using a small number of integrated properties of the simulated galaxies: star formation rate, stellar and dust masses, and mass-weighted metallicities of all star particles and of only star particles with age <10 Myr. Here, we present the methodology and quantify the accuracy of the predictions. We train the ANN on SEDs computed for galaxies from the IllustrisTNG project’s TNG50 cosmological magnetohydrodynamical simulation. ANNgelina is able to predict the SEDs of TNG50 galaxies in the ultraviolet (UV) to millimetre regime with a typical median absolute error of ∼7 per cent. The prediction error is the greatest in the UV, possibly due to the viewing-angle dependence being greatest in this wavelength regime. Our results demonstrate that our ANN-based emulator is a promising computationally inexpensive alternative for forward-modeling galaxy SEDs from cosmological simulations.

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    Feedback from active galactic nuclei and stellar processes changes the matter distribution on small scales, leading to significant systematic uncertainty in weak lensing constraints on cosmology. We investigate how the observable properties of group-scale haloes can constrain feedback’s impact on the matter distribution using Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations (CAMELS). Extending the results of previous work to smaller halo masses and higher wavenumber, k, we find that the baryon fraction in haloes contains significant information about the impact of feedback on the matter power spectrum. We explore how the thermal Sunyaev Zel’dovich (tSZ) signal from group-scale haloes contains similar information. Using recent Dark Energy Survey weak lensing and Atacama Cosmology Telescope tSZ cross-correlation measurements and models trained on CAMELS, we obtain 10 per cent constraints on feedback effects on the power spectrum at $k \sim 5\, h\, {\rm Mpc}^{-1}$. We show that with future surveys, it will be possible to constrain baryonic effects on the power spectrum to $\mathcal {O}(\lt 1~{{\ \rm per\ cent}})$ at $k = 1\, h\, {\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ and $\mathcal {O}(3~{{\ \rm per\ cent}})$ at $k = 5\, h\, {\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ using the methods that we introduce here. Finally, we investigate the impact of feedback on the matter bispectrum, finding that tSZ observables are highly informative in this case.

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  8. Abstract

    We present CAMELS-ASTRID, the third suite of hydrodynamical simulations in the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning (CAMELS) project, along with new simulation sets that extend the model parameter space based on the previous frameworks of CAMELS-TNG and CAMELS-SIMBA, to provide broader training sets and testing grounds for machine-learning algorithms designed for cosmological studies. CAMELS-ASTRID employs the galaxy formation model following the ASTRID simulation and contains 2124 hydrodynamic simulation runs that vary three cosmological parameters (Ωm,σ8, Ωb) and four parameters controlling stellar and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. Compared to the existing TNG and SIMBA simulation suites in CAMELS, the fiducial model of ASTRID features the mildest AGN feedback and predicts the least baryonic effect on the matter power spectrum. The training set of ASTRID covers a broader variation in the galaxy populations and the baryonic impact on the matter power spectrum compared to its TNG and SIMBA counterparts, which can make machine-learning models trained on the ASTRID suite exhibit better extrapolation performance when tested on other hydrodynamic simulation sets. We also introduce extension simulation sets in CAMELS that widely explore 28 parameters in the TNG and SIMBA models, demonstrating the enormity of the overall galaxy formation model parameter space and the complex nonlinear interplay between cosmology and astrophysical processes. With the new simulation suites, we show that building robust machine-learning models favors training and testing on the largest possible diversity of galaxy formation models. We also demonstrate that it is possible to train accurate neural networks to infer cosmological parameters using the high-dimensional TNG-SB28 simulation set.

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  9. Abstract

    As the next generation of large galaxy surveys come online, it is becoming increasingly important to develop and understand the machine-learning tools that analyze big astronomical data. Neural networks are powerful and capable of probing deep patterns in data, but they must be trained carefully on large and representative data sets. We present a new “hump” of the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations (CAMELS) project: CAMELS-SAM, encompassing one thousand dark-matter-only simulations of (100h−1cMpc)3with different cosmological parameters (Ωmandσ8) and run through the Santa Cruz semi-analytic model for galaxy formation over a broad range of astrophysical parameters. As a proof of concept for the power of this vast suite of simulated galaxies in a large volume and broad parameter space, we probe the power of simple clustering summary statistics to marginalize over astrophysics and constrain cosmology using neural networks. We use the two-point correlation, count-in-cells, and void probability functions, and we probe nonlinear and linear scales across 0.68 <R<27h−1cMpc. We find our neural networks can both marginalize over the uncertainties in astrophysics to constrain cosmology to 3%–8% error across various types of galaxy selections, while simultaneously learning about the SC-SAM astrophysical parameters. This work encompasses vital first steps toward creating algorithms able to marginalize over the uncertainties in our galaxy formation models and measure the underlying cosmology of our Universe. CAMELS-SAM has been publicly released alongside the rest of CAMELS, and it offers great potential to many applications of machine learning in astrophysics:

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  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024