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  1. Abstract

    One of the most fundamental baryonic matter components of galaxies is the neutral atomic hydrogen (Hi). At low redshifts, this component can be traced directly through the 21 cm transition, but to infer the Higas content of the most distant galaxies, a viable tracer is needed. We here investigate the fidelity of the fine-structure transition of the (2P3/22P1/3) transition of singly ionized carbon Ciiat 158μm as a proxy for Hiin a set simulated galaxies atz≈ 6, following the work by Heintz et al. We select 11,125 star-forming galaxies from thesimbasimulations, with far-infrared line emissions postprocessed and modeled within the Sigameframework. We find a strong connection between Ciiand Hi, with the relation between this Cii-to-Hirelation (β[CII]) being anticorrelated with the gas-phase metallicity of the simulated galaxies. We further use these simulations to make predictions for the total baryonic matter content of galaxies atz≈ 6, and specifically the Higas mass fraction. We find mean values ofMH I/M= 1.4 andMH I/Mbar,tot= 0.45. These results provide strong evidence for Hibeing the dominant baryonic matter component by mass in galaxies atz≈ 6.

  2. Abstract We present an update to the framework called Simulator of Galaxy Millimeter/submillimeter Emission ( sígame ). sígame derives line emission in the far-infrared (FIR) for galaxies in particle-based cosmological hydrodynamics simulations by applying radiative transfer and physics recipes via a postprocessing step after completion of the simulation. In this version, a new technique is developed to model higher gas densities by parameterizing the probability distribution function (PDF) of the gas density in higher-resolution simulations run with the pseudo-Lagrangian, Voronoi mesh code arepo . The parameterized PDFs are used as a look-up table, and reach higher densities than in previous work. sígame v3 is tested on redshift z = 0 galaxies drawn from the simba cosmological simulation for eight FIR emission lines tracing vastly different phases of the interstellar medium. This version of sígame includes dust radiative transfer with S kirt and high-resolution photoionization models with C loudy , the latter sampled according to the density PDF of the arepo simulations to augment the densities in the cosmological simulation. The quartile distributions of the predicted line luminosities overlap with the observed range for nearby galaxies of similar star formation rate (SFR) for all but two emission lines: [O i ]63more »and CO(3–2), which are overestimated by median factors of 1.3 and 1.0 dex, respectively, compared to the observed line–SFR relation of mixed-type galaxies. We attribute the remaining disagreement with observations to the lack of precise attenuation of the interstellar light on sub-grid scales (≲200 pc) and differences in sample selection.« less
  3. Abstract

    The SPT 0311–58 system atz= 6.900 is an extremely massive structure within the reionization epoch and offers a chance to understand the formation of galaxies at an extreme peak in the primordial density field. We present 70 mas Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the dust continuum and [Cii] 158μm emission in the central pair of galaxies and reach physical resolutions of ∼100–350 pc, among the most detailed views of any reionization-era system to date. The observations resolve the source into at least a dozen kiloparsec-size clumps. The global kinematics and high turbulent velocity dispersion within the galaxies present a striking contrast to recent claims of dynamically cold thin-disk kinematics in some dusty galaxies just 800 Myr later atz∼ 4. We speculate that both gravitational interactions and fragmentation from massive parent disks have likely played a role in the overall dynamics and formation of clumps in the system. Each clump individually is comparable in mass to other 6 <z< 8 galaxies identified in rest-UV/optical deep field surveys, but with star formation rates elevated by a factor of ~3-5. Internally, the clumps themselves bear close resemblance to greatly scaled-up versions of virialized cloud-scale structures identified in low-redshift galaxies. Our observationsmore »are qualitatively similar to the chaotic and clumpy assembly within massive halos seen in simulations of high-redshift galaxies.

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