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Creators/Authors contains: "Voroninski, Vladislav"

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  1. Abstract

    Advances in compressive sensing (CS) provided reconstruction algorithms of sparse signals from linear measurements with optimal sample complexity, but natural extensions of this methodology to nonlinear inverse problems have been met with potentially fundamental sample complexity bottlenecks. In particular, tractable algorithms for compressive phase retrieval with sparsity priors have not been able to achieve optimal sample complexity. This has created an open problem in compressive phase retrieval: under generic, phaseless linear measurements, are there tractable reconstruction algorithms that succeed with optimal sample complexity? Meanwhile, progress in machine learning has led to the development of new data‐driven signal priors in the form of generative models, which can outperform sparsity priors with significantly fewer measurements. In this work, we resolve the open problem in compressive phase retrieval and demonstrate that generative priors can lead to a fundamental advance by permitting optimal sample complexity by a tractable algorithm. We additionally provide empirics showing that exploiting generative priors in phase retrieval can significantly outperform sparsity priors. These results provide support for generative priors as a new paradigm for signal recovery in a variety of contexts, both empirically and theoretically. The strengths of this paradigm are that (1) generative priors can represent some classes of natural signals more concisely than sparsity priors, (2) generative priors allow for direct optimization over the natural signal manifold, which is intractable under sparsity priors, and (3) the resulting non‐convex optimization problems with generative priors can admit benign optimization landscapes at optimal sample complexity, perhaps surprisingly, even in cases of nonlinear measurements.

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    We provide a non-asymptotic analysis of the spiked Wishart and Wigner matrix models with a generative neural network prior. Spiked random matrices have the form of a rank-one signal plus noise and have been used as models for high dimensional Principal Component Analysis (PCA), community detection and synchronization over groups. Depending on the prior imposed on the spike, these models can display a statistical-computational gap between the information theoretically optimal reconstruction error that can be achieved with unbounded computational resources and the sub-optimal performances of currently known polynomial time algorithms. These gaps are believed to be fundamental, as in the emblematic case of Sparse PCA. In stark contrast to such cases, we show that there is no statistical-computational gap under a generative network prior, in which the spike lies on the range of a generative neural network. Specifically, we analyze a gradient descent method for minimizing a nonlinear least squares objective over the range of an expansive-Gaussian neural network and show that it can recover in polynomial time an estimate of the underlying spike with a rate-optimal sample complexity and dependence on the noise level. 
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    Abstract Deep neural networks provide state-of-the-art performance for image denoising, where the goal is to recover a near noise-free image from a noisy observation. The underlying principle is that neural networks trained on large data sets have empirically been shown to be able to generate natural images well from a low-dimensional latent representation of the image. Given such a generator network, a noisy image can be denoised by (i) finding the closest image in the range of the generator or by (ii) passing it through an encoder-generator architecture (known as an autoencoder). However, there is little theory to justify this success, let alone to predict the denoising performance as a function of the network parameters. In this paper, we consider the problem of denoising an image from additive Gaussian noise using the two generator-based approaches. In both cases, we assume the image is well described by a deep neural network with ReLU activations functions, mapping a $k$-dimensional code to an $n$-dimensional image. In the case of the autoencoder, we show that the feedforward network reduces noise energy by a factor of $O(k/n)$. In the case of optimizing over the range of a generative model, we state and analyze a simple gradient algorithm that minimizes a non-convex loss function and provably reduces noise energy by a factor of $O(k/n)$. We also demonstrate in numerical experiments that this denoising performance is, indeed, achieved by generative priors learned from data. 
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  5. We consider semidefinite programs (SDPs) with equality constraints. The variable to be optimized is a positive semidefinite matrix X of size n. Following the Burer‐Monteiro approach, we optimize a factor Y of size n × p instead, such that X = YYT. This ensures positive semidefiniteness at no cost and can reduce the dimension of the problem if p is small, but results in a nonconvex optimization problem with a quadratic cost function and quadratic equality constraints in Y. In this paper, we show that if the set of constraints on Y regularly defines a smooth manifold, then, despite nonconvexity, first‐ and second‐order necessary optimality conditions are also sufficient, provided p is large enough. For smaller values of p, we show a similar result holds for almost all (linear) cost functions. Under those conditions, a global optimum Y maps to a global optimum X = YYT of the SDP. We deduce old and new consequences for SDP relaxations of the generalized eigenvector problem, the trust‐region subproblem, and quadratic optimization over several spheres, as well as for the Max‐Cut and Orthogonal‐Cut SDPs, which are common relaxations in stochastic block modeling and synchronization of rotations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 
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