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  1. Abstract

    The rapid decline of Arctic sea ice, including sea ice area (SIA) retreat and sea ice thinning, is a striking manifestation of global climate change. Analysis of 40 CMIP6 models reveals a very large spread in both model simulations of the September SIA and thickness and the timing of a summer ice-free Arctic Ocean. The existing SIA-based evaluation metrics are deficient due to observational uncertainty, prominent internal variability, and indirect Arctic response to global forcing. Given the critical roles of sea ice thickness (SIT) in determining Arctic ice variation throughout the seasonal cycle and the April SIT bridging the winter freezing and summer melting processes, we propose two SIT-based metrics, the April mean SIT and summer SIA response to April SIT, to assess climate models’ capability to reproduce the historical change of the Arctic sea ice area. The selected 11 good models reduce the uncertainty in the projected first ice-free Arctic by 70% relative to 11 poor models. The chosen models’ ensemble mean projects the first ice-free year in 2049 (2043) under the shared socio-economic pathways (SSP)2-4.5 (SSP5-8.5) scenario with one standard deviation of the inter-model spread of 12.0 (8.9) years.

  2. Abstract Landfalling tropical cyclones (LTCs) are the most devastating disaster to affect the U.S., while the demonstration of skillful subseasonal (between 10 days and one season) prediction of LTCs is less promising. Understanding the mechanisms governing the subseasonal variation of TC activity is fundamental to improving its forecast, which is of critical interest to decision-makers and the insurance industry. This work reveals three localized atmospheric circulation modes with significant 10–30 days subseasonal variations: Piedmont Oscillation (PO), Great America Dipole (GAD), and the Subtropical High ridge (SHR) modes. These modes strongly modulate precipitation, TC genesis, intensity, track, and landfall near the U.S. coast. Compared to their strong negative phases, the U.S. East Coast has 19 times more LTCs during the strong positive phases of PO, and the Gulf Coast experiences 4–12 times more frequent LTCs during the positive phases of GAD and SHR. Results from the GFDL SPEAR model show a skillful prediction of 13, 9, and 22 days for these three modes, respectively. Our findings are expected to benefit the prediction of LTCs on weather timescale and also suggest opportunities exist for subseasonal predictions of LTCs and their associated heavy rainfalls.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    Three consecutive precipitation extremes emerged in November 2021, including India-Sri Lanka flooding, East Asian blizzard, and Canadian floods. Why the catastrophic events occurred successively and whether they will become more frequent as global warming continues are unknown. Here we show they are organized by an intraseasonal Asian/North American (ANA) teleconnection consisting of two cross-Pacific wave trains fortified by dipolar diabatic heating anomalies (“wet India-dry Philippines”). The dipolar heating anomaly is shaped by multi-scale interaction between a quasi-stationary Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) episode and a rapidly developed La Niña over the tropical Asian monsoon region. Numerical experiments suggest that the off-equatorial heating dipole can generate the ANA pattern resembling observations, distinct from the equatorial MJO-induced teleconnection and the La Niña-induced Pacific/North American teleconnection. Philippine cooling stimulates the circum-Pacific wave train, while Indian heating produces the eastward-propagating subtropical wave train. These wave trains persistently steered cross-Pacific atmospheric rivers channeling warm-moisture-laden air to the extratropics. We suggest that the ANA teleconnection could be a new route by which multi-scale interaction between the La Niña and quasi-stationary MJO over the tropical Asian monsoon affects extratropical East Asia and North America. This work provides a unique perspective on understanding the origins of increasing collisions ofmore »extremes worldwide within a short time as the global climate warms.

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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 21, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  6. Magnetoelastic thin shells exhibit great potential in realizing versatile functionalities through a broad range of combination of material stiffness, remnant magnetization intensity, and external magnetic stimuli. In this paper, we propose a novel computational method for forward simulation and inverse design of magnetoelastic thin shells. Our system consists of two key components of forward simulation and backward optimization. On the simulation side, we have developed a new continuum mechanics model based on the Kirchhoff-Love thin-shell model to characterize the behaviors of a megnetolelastic thin shell under external magnetic stimuli. Based on this model, we proposed an implicit numerical simulator facilitated by the magnetic energy Hessian to treat the elastic and magnetic stresses within a unified framework, which is versatile to incorporation with other thin shell models. On the optimization side, we have devised a new differentiable simulation framework equipped with an efficient adjoint formula to accommodate various PDE-constraint, inverse design problems of magnetoelastic thin-shell structures, in both static and dynamic settings. It also encompasses applications of magnetoelastic soft robots, functional Origami, artworks, and meta-material designs. We demonstrate the efficacy of our framework by designing and simulating a broad array of magnetoelastic thin-shell objects that manifest complicated interactions between magnetic fields,more »materials, and control policies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  7. Abstract

    Accurate prediction of global land monsoon rainfall on a sub-seasonal (2–8 weeks) time scale has become a worldwide demand. Current forecasts of weekly-mean rainfall in most monsoon regions, however, have limited skills beyond two weeks, calling for a more profound understanding of monsoon intraseasonal variability (ISV). We show that the high-frequency (HF; 8–20 days) ISV, crucial for the Week 2 and Week 3 predictions, accounts for about 53–70% of the total (8–70 days) ISV, generally dominating the sub-seasonal predictability of various land monsoons, while the low-frequency (LF; 20–70 days)’s contribution is comparable to HF only over Australia (AU; 47%), South Asia (SA; 43%), and South America (SAM; 40%). The leading modes of HFISVs in Northern Hemisphere (NH) monsoons primarily originate from different convectively coupled equatorial waves, while from mid-latitude wave trains for Southern Hemisphere (SH) monsoons and East Asian (EA) monsoon. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) directly regulates LFISVs in Asian-Australian monsoon and affects American and African monsoons by exciting Kelvin waves and mid-latitude teleconnections. During the past four decades, the HF (LF) ISVs have considerably intensified over Asian (Asian-Australian) monsoon but weakened over American (SAM) monsoon. Sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) prediction models exhibit higher sub-seasonal prediction skills over AU,more »SA, and SAM monsoons that have larger LFISV contributions than other monsoons. These results suggest an urgent need to improve the simulation of convectively coupled equatorial waves and two-way interactions between regional monsoon ISVs and mid-latitude processes and between MJO and regional monsoons, especially under the global warming scenarios.

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  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 26, 2023
  9. Edge computing has emerged as a popular paradigm for running latency-sensitive applications due to its ability to offer lower network latencies to end-users. In this paper, we argue that despite its lower network latency, the resource-constrained nature of the edge can result in higher end-to-end latency, especially at higher utilizations, when compared to cloud data centers. We study this edge performance inversion problem through an analytic comparison of edge and cloud latencies and analyze conditions under which the edge can yield worse performance than the cloud. To verify our analytic results, we conduct a detailed experimental comparison of the edge and the cloud latencies using a realistic application and real cloud workloads. Both our analytical and experimental results show that even at moderate utilizations, the edge queuing delays can offset the benefits of lower network latencies, and even result in performance inversion where running in the cloud would provide superior latencies. We finally discuss practical implications of our results and provide insights into how application designers and service providers should design edge applications and systems to avoid these pitfalls.