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  1. We conducted a spectral analysis of the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget in a bubble plume using particle image velocimetry with fluorescent particles. Our findings confirmed the hypothesis of an inverse energy cascade in the bubble plume, where TKE is transferred from small to large eddies. This is attributed to direct injection of TKE by bubble passages across a wide range of scales, in contrast to canonical shear production of TKE in large scales. Turbulence dissipation was identified as the primary sink of the bubble-produced TKE and occurred at all scales. The decomposition of velocities using the critical length scale of inter-scale energy transfer allowed us to distinguish between large- and small-scale motions in the bubble plume. The large-scale turbulent fluctuations exhibited a skewed distribution and were likely associated with the return flow after bubble passage and the velocities induced by the bubble wake. The small-scale turbulent fluctuations followed a Gaussian distribution relatively well. The large-scale motions contributed to over half of the Reynolds stresses, while there were significant small-scale contributions to the normal stresses near the plume center but not to the shear stress. The large-scale motions in the vorticity field induced a street of vertically elongated vortex pairs, while the small-scale vortices exhibited similar sizes in both horizontal and vertical directions.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Creating materials that do not exist in nature can lead to breakthroughs in science and technology. Magnetic skyrmions are topological excitations that have attracted great attention recently for their potential applications in low power, ultrahigh density memory. A major challenge has been to find materials that meet the dual requirement of small skyrmions stable at room temperature. Here we meet both these goals by developing epitaxial FeGe films with excess Fe using atomic layer molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) far from thermal equilibrium. Our atomic layer design permits the incorporation of 20% excess Fe while maintaining a non-centrosymmetric crystal structure supported by theoretical calculations and necessary for stabilizing skyrmions. We show that the Curie temperature is well above room temperature, and that the skyrmions have sizes down to 15 nm as imaged by Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The presence of skyrmions coincides with a topological Hall effect-like resistivity. These atomically tailored materials hold promise for future ultrahigh density magnetic memory applications.

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  6. Superlattices composed of either monoclinic μ-Fe2O3 or β-(AlxGa1−x)2O3 with β-Ga2O3 spacers are grown on (010) β-Ga2O3 substrates using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution x-ray diffraction data are quantitatively fit using commercial dynamical x-ray diffraction software (LEPTOS) to obtain layer thicknesses, strain, and compositions. The strain state of β-(AlxGa1−x)2O3 and μ-Fe2O3 superlattices as characterized using reciprocal space maps in the symmetric (020) and asymmetric (420) diffraction conditions indicates coherent growths that are strained to the (010) β-Ga2O3 lattice. β-(AlxGa1−x)2O3 and μ-Fe2O3 superlattices grown at hotter substrate temperatures result in crystal structures with better coherency and reduced defects compared to colder growths. The growth rate of μ-Fe2O3 is ∼2.6 nm/min at Tsub = 700 °C and drops to ∼1.6 nm/min at Tsub = 800 °C due to increased Fe interdiffusion at hotter substrate temperatures. Scanning transmission electron microscopy data of a μ-Fe2O3 superlattice grown at Tsub = 700 °C confirm that there is significant diffusion of Fe atoms into β-Ga2O3 layers.

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  7. Magnetic materials with kagome crystal structure exhibit rich physics, such as frustrated magnetism, skyrmion formation, topological flat bands, and Dirac/Weyl points. Until recently, most studies on kagome magnets have been performed on bulk crystals or polycrystalline films. Here, we report the atomic layer molecular beam epitaxy synthesis of high-quality thin films of topological kagome magnet Fe 3 Sn 2 . The structural and magnetic characterization of Fe 3 Sn 2 on epitaxial Pt(111) identifies highly ordered films with c-plane orientation and an in-plane magnetic easy axis. Studies on the local magnetic structure by anomalous Nernst effect imaging reveal in-plane oriented micrometer size domains. Superlattice structures consisting of Fe 3 Sn 2 and Fe 3 Sn are also synthesized by atomic layer molecular beam epitaxy, demonstrating the ability to modulate the sample structure at the atomic level. The realization of high-quality films by atomic layer molecular beam epitaxy opens the door to explore the rich physics of this system and investigate novel spintronic phenomena by interfacing Fe 3 Sn 2 with other materials. 
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