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  4. Traditional traffic signal control focuses more on the optimization aspects whereas the stability and robustness of the closed-loop system are less studied. This paper aims to establish the stability properties of traffic signal control systems through the analysis of a practical model predictive control (MPC) scheme, which models the traffic network with the conservation of vehicles based on a store-and-forward model and attempts to balance the traffic densities. More precisely, this scheme guarantees the exponential stability of the closed-loop system under state and input constraints when the inflow is feasible and traffic demand can be fully accessed. Practical exponential stability is achieved in case of small uncertain traffic demand by a modification of the previous scheme. Simulation results of a small-scale traffic network validate the theoretical analysis. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 14, 2024
  5. The question of at what resolution the large eddy simulations (LESs) of a tropical cyclone (TC) high wind area may converge largely remains unanswered. To address this issue, LESs with five resolutions of 300 m, 100 m, 60 m, 33 m, and 20 m are performed in this study to simulate a high wind area near the radius of maximum wind of Typhoon Chanthu (2021) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The results show that, for a limited area LES, model grid resolution may alter the local turbulence structure to generate significantly different extreme values of temperature, moisture, and winds, but it only has a marginal impact on the median values of these variables throughout the vertical column. All simulations are able to capture the turbulent roll vortices in the TC boundary layer, but the structure and intensity of the rolls vary substantially in different resolution simulations. Local hectometer-scale eddies with vertical velocities exceeding 10 m s−1 are only observed in the 20 m resolution simulation but not in the coarser resolution simulations. The ratio of the resolved turbulent momentum fluxes and turbulent kinetic energies (TKEs) to the total momentum fluxes and TKEs appears to show some convergence of LESs when the grid resolution reaches 100 m or finer, suggesting that it is an acceptable grid resolution for LES applications in TC simulations. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024