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  1. Abstract

    Warming climate in the Arctic is leading to an increase in isoprene emission from ecosystems. We assessed the influence of temperature on isoprene emission from Arctic willows with laboratory and field measurements. Our findings indicate that the hourly temperature response curve ofSalixspp., the dominant isoprene emitting shrub in the Arctic, aligns with that of temperate plants. In contrast, the isoprene capacity of willows exhibited a more substantial than expected response to the mean ambient temperature of the previous day, which is much stronger than the daily temperature response predicted by the current version of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). With a modified algorithm from this study, MEGAN predicts 66% higher isoprene emissions for Arctic willows during an Arctic heatwave. However, despite these findings, we are still unable to fully explain the high temperature sensitivity of isoprene emissions from high latitude ecosystems.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 28, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  3. The combination of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and birefringence microscopy (BRM) enables multiscale assessment of myelinated axons in postmortem brain tissue, and these tools are promising for the study of brain connectivity and organization. We demonstrate label-free imaging of myelin structure across the mesoscopic and microscopic spatial scales by performing serial-sectioning PS-OCT of a block of human brain tissue and periodically sampling thin sections for high-resolution imaging with BRM. In co-registered birefringence parameter maps, we observe good correspondence and demonstrate that BRM enables detailed validation of myelin (hence, axonal) organization, thus complementing the volumetric information content of PS-OCT.

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  4. Abstract

    Certain archaeal cells possess external proteinaceous sheath, whose structure and organization are both unknown. By cellular cryogenic electron tomography (cryoET), here we have determined sheath organization of the prototypical archaeon,Methanospirillum hungatei. Fitting of Alphafold-predicted model of the sheath protein (SH) monomer into the 7.9 Å-resolution structure reveals that the sheath cylinder consists of axially stacked β-hoops, each of which is comprised of two to six 400 nm-diameter rings of β-strand arches (β-rings). With both similarities to and differences from amyloid cross-β fibril architecture, each β-ring contains two giant β-sheets contributed by ~ 450 SH monomers that entirely encircle the outer circumference of the cell. Tomograms of immature cells suggest models of sheath biogenesis: oligomerization of SH monomers into β-ring precursors after their membrane-proximal cytoplasmic synthesis, followed by translocation through the unplugged end of a dividing cell, and insertion of nascent β-hoops into the immature sheath cylinder at the junction of two daughter cells.

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