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  1. Flow super-resolution (FSR) enables inferring fine-grained urban flows with coarse-grained observations and plays an important role in traffic monitoring and prediction. The existing FSR solutions rely on deep CNN models (e.g., ResNet) for learning spatial correlation, incurring excessive memory cost and numerous parameter updates. We propose to tackle the urban flows inference using dynamic systems paradigm and present a new method FODE -- FSR with Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). FODE extends neural ODEs by introducing an affine coupling layer to overcome the problem of numerically unstable gradient computation, which allows more accurate and efficient spatial correlation estimation, without extra memory cost. In addition, FODE provides a flexible balance between flow inference accuracy and computational efficiency. A FODE-based augmented normalization mechanism is further introduced to constrain the flow distribution with the influence of external factors. Experimental evaluations on two real-world datasets demonstrate that FODE significantly outperforms several baseline approaches.

  2. Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source for electricity generation in the world, with numerous benefits in terms of: environment protection (near-zero air pollution and climate impact), cost-effectiveness (long-term use, without significant impacts of market fluctuation), and reliability (quickly respond to surge in demand). However, the effectiveness of hydropower plants is affected by multiple factors such as reservoir capacity, rainfall, temperature and fluctuating electricity demand, and particularly their complicated relationships, which make the prediction/recommendation of station operational output a difficult challenge. In this paper, we present DeepHydro, a novel stochastic method for modeling multivariate time series (e.g., water inflow/outflow and temperature) and forecasting power generation of hydropower stations. DeepHydro captures temporal dependencies in co-evolving time series with a new conditioned latent recurrent neural networks, which not only considers the hidden states of observations but also preserves the uncertainty of latent variables. We introduce a generative network parameterized on a continuous normalizing flow to approximate the complex posterior distribution of multivariate time series data, and further use neural ordinary differential equations to estimate the continuous-time dynamics of the latent variables constituting the observable data. This allows our model to deal with the discrete observations in the context of continuous dynamic systems,more »while being robust to the noise. We conduct extensive experiments on real-world datasets from a large power generation company consisting of cascade hydropower stations. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively predict the power production and significantly outperform the possible candidate baseline approaches.« less