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  1. Both thin (55μm) composite and thick (350μm) all active material battery porous electrodes were prepared for estimating the diffusion coefficient of Li+(DLi+)in tellurium (Te) during electrochemical lithiation. Galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied to quantify the chemical lithium solid-state diffusion coefficient within the Te active material in the electrodes. Multiple methods of GITT and EIS were assessed. For the composite Te electrodes, theDLi+was on the order of 10−11cm2s−1from both CV and GITT methods, but 10−9cm2s−1from EIS. For the thick tellurium electrodes, both GITT and EIS resulted in lithium diffusion coefficient estimates in the range of 10−11–10−12cm2s−1. The general trend across all methods that quantified the diffusion coefficient as a function of lithiation of tellurium was that theDLi+decreased rapidly when the Te material was initially lithiated. TheDLi+at the phase transition voltage plateau (∼1.7 V, vs Li/Li+, where both Te and Li2Te were expected) had the lowestDLi+,while theDLi+both before and after the plateau was generally higher. Among all the electrochemical measurements ofDLi+,the modified GITTmore »method with modelling the relaxation region resulted in relatively low scatter in the data, provided values as a function of lithiation, and was well suited to thick electrodes with a flat discharge plateau as was the case herein.

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  2. Direct functionalization of the C(O)–N amide bond is one of the most high-profile research directions in the last few decades; however oxidative couplings involving amide bonds and functionalization of thioamide C(S)–N analogues remain an unsolved challenge. Herein, a novel hypervalent iodine-induced twofold oxidative coupling of amines with amides and thioamides has been established. The protocol accomplishes divergent C(O)–N and C(S)–N disconnection by the previously unknown Ar–O and Ar–S oxidative coupling and highly chemoselectively assembles the versatile yet synthetically challenging oxazoles and thiazoles. Employing amides instead of thioamides affords an alternative bond cleavage pattern, which is a result of the higher conjugation in thioamides. Mechanistic investigations indicate ureas and thioureas generated in the first oxidation as pivotal intermediates to realize the oxidative coupling. These findings open up new avenues for exploring oxidative amide and thioamide bond chemistry in various synthetic contexts.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 22, 2024
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  5. With the proliferation of distributed energy resources (DERs) in the distribution grid, it is a challenge to effectively control a large number of DERs resilient to the communication and security disruptions, as well as to provide the online grid services, such as voltage regulation and virtual power plant (VPP) dispatch. To this end, a hybrid feedback-based optimization algorithm along with deep learning forecasting technique is proposed to specifically address the cyber-related issues. The online decentralized feedback-based DER optimization control requires timely, accurate voltage measurement from the grid. However, in practice such information may not be received by the control center or even be corrupted. Therefore, the long short-term memory (LSTM) deep learning algorithm is employed to forecast delayed/missed/attacked messages with high accuracy. The IEEE 37-node feeder with high penetration of PV systems is used to validate the efficiency of the proposed hybrid algorithm. The results show that 1) the LSTM-forecasted lost voltage can effectively improve the performance of the DER control algorithm in the practical cyber-physical architecture; and 2) the LSTM forecasting strategy outperforms other strategies of using previous message and skipping dual parameter update.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 16, 2024
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  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  9. Abstract

    Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) generated in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) contain features that may be useful for titrating deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy for Parkinson’s disease. Delivering a strong therapeutic effect with DBS therapies, however, relies on selectively targeting neural pathways to avoid inducing side effects. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal features of ECAPs in and around the STN across parameter sweeps of stimulation current amplitude, pulse width, and electrode configuration, and used a linear classifier of ECAP responses to predict electrode location. Four non-human primates were implanted unilaterally with either a directional (n = 3) or non-directional (n = 1) DBS lead targeting the sensorimotor STN. ECAP responses were characterized by primary features (within 1.6 ms after a stimulus pulse) and secondary features (between 1.6 and 7.4 ms after a stimulus pulse). Using these features, a linear classifier was able to accurately differentiate electrodes within the STN versus dorsal to the STN in all four subjects. ECAP responses varied systematically with recording and stimulating electrode locations, which provides a subject-specific neuroanatomical basis for selecting electrode configurations in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease with DBS therapy.

  10. Abstract

    Dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which are the manifestation of two actively accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) hosted by a pair of merging galaxies, are a unique laboratory for studying the physics of SMBH feeding and feedback during an indispensable stage of galaxy evolution. In this work, we present NOEMA CO(2–1) observations of seven kiloparsec-scale dual-AGN candidates drawn from a recent Chandra survey of low redshift, optically classified AGN pairs. These systems are selected because they show unexpectedly low 2–10 keV X-ray luminosities for their small physical separations signifying an intermediate-to-late stage of merger. Circumnuclear molecular gas traced by the CO(2–1) emission is significantly detected in six of the seven pairs and 10 of the 14 nuclei, with an estimated mass ranging between (0.2–21) × 109M. The primary nuclei, i.e., the ones with the higher stellar velocity dispersion, tend to have a higher molecular gas mass than the secondary. Most CO-detected nuclei show a compact morphology, with a velocity field consistent with a kiloparsec-scale rotating structure. The inferred hydrogen column densities range between 5 × 1021–2 × 1023cm−2, but mostly at a few times 1022cm−2, in broad agreement with those derived from X-ray spectral analysis. Together with the relativelymore »weak mid-infrared emission, the moderate column density argues against the prevalence of heavily obscured, intrinsically luminous AGNs in these seven systems, but favors a feedback scenario in which AGN activity triggered by a recent pericentric passage of the galaxy pair can expel circumnuclear gas and suppress further SMBH accretion.

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