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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 11, 2024
  2. A durable bioadhesive hydrogel-elastomer enables continuous imaging of internal organs and tissues. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Background Phytohormones are small molecules that regulate virtually every aspect of plant growth and development, from basic cellular processes, such as cell expansion and division, to whole plant environmental responses. While the phytohormone levels and distribution thus tell the plant how to adjust itself, the corresponding growth alterations are actuated by cell wall modification/synthesis and internal turgor. Plant cell walls are complex polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrixes that surround all plant cells. Among the cell wall components, cellulose is typically the major polysaccharide, and is the load-bearing structure of the walls. Hence, the cell wall distribution of cellulose, which is synthesized by large Cellulose Synthase protein complexes at the cell surface, directs plant growth. Scope Here, we review the relationships between key phytohormone classes and cellulose deposition in plant systems. We present the core signalling pathways associated with each phytohormone and discuss the current understanding of how these signalling pathways impact cellulose biosynthesis with a particular focus on transcriptional and post-translational regulation. Because cortical microtubules underlying the plasma membrane significantly impact the trajectories of Cellulose Synthase Complexes, we also discuss the current understanding of how phytohormone signalling impacts the cortical microtubule array. Conclusion Given the importance of cellulose deposition and phytohormone signalling in plant growth and development, one would expect that there is substantial cross-talk between these processes; however, mechanisms for many of these relationships remain unclear and should be considered as the target of future studies. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Octopus-inspired cratered surfaces have recently emerged as a new class of reusable physical adhesives. Preload-dependent adhesion and enhanced adhesion under water distinguish them from the well-studied gecko-inspired pillared surfaces. Despite growing experimental evidence, modeling frameworks and mechanistic understanding of cratered surfaces are still very limited. We recently developed a framework to evaluate suction forces produced by isolated craters in air. In this paper, we focus on underwater craters. The suction forceā€“preload relation predicted by this framework has been validated by experiments carried out with an incompressible fluid under small and moderate preloads. Our model breaks down under a large preload due to multiple possible reasons including liquid vaporization. A direct comparison between liquid and air-filled craters has been carried out and the dependence on the depth of water has been revealed. We find that the suction forces generated by underwater craters scale with the specimen modulus but exhibit non-monotonic dependence on the aspect ratio of the craters. 
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