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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Due to climate change and rapid urbanization, Urban Heat Island (UHI), featuring significantly higher temperature in metropolitan areas than surrounding areas, has caused negative impacts on urban communities. Temporal granularity is often limited in UHI studies based on satellite remote sensing data that typically has multi-day frequency coverage of a particular urban area. This low temporal frequency has restricted the development of models for predicting UHI. To resolve this limitation, this study has developed a cyber-based geographic information science and systems (cyberGIS) framework encompassing multiple machine learning models for predicting UHI with high-frequency urban sensor network data combined with remote sensing data focused on Chicago, Illinois, from 2018 to 2020. Enabled by rapid advances in urban sensor network technologies and high-performance computing, this framework is designed to predict UHI in Chicago with fine spatiotemporal granularity based on environmental data collected with the Array of Things (AoT) urban sensor network and Landsat-8 remote sensing imagery. Our computational experiments revealed that a random forest regression (RFR) model outperforms other models with the prediction accuracy of 0.45 degree Celsius in 2020 and 0.8 degree Celsius in 2018 and 2019 with mean absolute error as the evaluation metric. Humidity, distance to geographic center, and PM2.5concentration are identified as important factors contributing to the model performance. Furthermore, we estimate UHI in Chicago with 10-min temporal frequency and 1-km spatial resolution on the hottest day in 2018. It is demonstrated that the RFR model can accurately predict UHI at fine spatiotemporal scales with high-frequency urban sensor network data integrated with satellite remote sensing data.

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  3. Urban greenway is an emerging form of urban landscape offering multifaceted benefits to public health, economy, and ecology. However, the usage and user experiences of greenways are often challenging to measure because it is costly to survey such large areas. Based on the online postings from Instagram in 2017, this paper used Computer Vision (CV) technology to analyze and compare how the general public uses two typical greenway parks, The High Line in New York City and the Atlanta Beltline in Atlanta. Face and object detection analysis were conducted to infer user composition, activities, and key experiences. We presented the temporal patterns of Instagram postings as well as the group gatherings, smiling, and representative objects detected from photos. Our results have shown high user engagement levels for both parks while teens are significantly underrepresented. The High Line had more group activities and was more active during weekdays than the Atlanta Beltline. Stronger sense of escape and physical activities can be found in Atlanta Beltline. In summary, social media images like Instagram can provide strong empirical evidence for urban greenway usage when combined with artificial intelligence technologies, which can support the future practice of landscape architecture and urban design. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Climate vulnerability is higher in coastal regions. Communities can largely reduce their hazard vulnerabilities and increase their social resilience through design and planning, which could put cities on a trajectory for long-term stability. However, the silos within the design and planning communities and the gap between research and practice have made it difficult to achieve the goal for a flood resilient environment. Therefore, this paper suggests an AI (Artificial Intelligence)-driven platform to facilitate the flood resilience design and planning. This platform, with the active engagement of local residents, experts, policy makers, and practitioners, will break the aforementioned silos and close the knowledge gaps, which ultimately increases public awareness, improves collaboration effectiveness, and achieves the best design and planning outcomes. We suggest a holistic and integrated approach, bringing multiple disciplines (architectural design, landscape architecture, urban planning, geography, and computer science), and examining the pressing resilient issues at the macro, meso, and micro scales. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
  6. Abstract

    Community‐based question answering websites have attracted more and more scholars and developers to discuss domain knowledge and software development. In this article, we focus on the GIS section of the Stack Exchange website and develop a novel approach, QA4GIS, a deep learning‐based system for question answering tasks with a deep neural network (DNN) model to extract the representation of the query–API document pair. We use the LambdaMART model to rerank the candidate API documents. We begin with an empirical analysis of the questions and answers, demonstrating that API documents could answer 52.93% of the questions. Then we evaluate QA4GIS by comparing it with 10 other baselines. The experiment results show that QA4GIS can improve 21.39% on the MAP score and 22.34% on the MRR score compared with the best baseline SIF.

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