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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 25, 2023

    Distance-redshift diagrams probe expansion history of the Universe. We show that the stellar mass-binding energy (massE) relation of galaxies proposed in our previous study offers a new distance ruler at cosmic scales. By using elliptical galaxies in the main galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we construct a distance-redshift diagram over the redshift range from 0.05 to 0.2 with the massE ruler. The best-fit dark energy density is 0.675 ± 0.079  for flat Λ-cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model, consistent with those by other probes. At the median redshift of 0.11, the median distance is estimated to have a fractional error of 0.34 per cent, much lower than those by supernova (SN) Ia and baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) and even exceeding their future capability at this redshift. The above low-$\mathit{ z}$ measurement is useful for probing dark energy that dominates at the late Universe. For a flat dark energy equation of state model (flat wCDM), the massE alone constrains w to an error that is only a factor of 2.2, 1.7, and 1.3 times larger than those by BAO, SN Ia, and cosmic microwave background (CMB), respectively.

  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  7. Programmable networks are enabling a new class of applications that leverage the line-rate processing capability and on-chip register memory of the switch data plane. Yet the status quo is focused on developing approaches that share the register memory statically. We present NetVRM, a network management system that supports dynamic register memory sharing between multiple concurrent applications on a programmable network and is readily deployable on commodity programmable switches. NetVRM provides a virtual register memory abstraction that enables applications to share the register memory in the data plane, and abstracts away the underlying details. In principle, NetVRM supports any memory allocation algorithm given the virtual register memory abstraction. It also provides a default memory allocation algorithm that exploits the observation that applications have diminishing returns on additional memory. NetVRM provides an extension of P4, P4VRM, for developing applications with virtual register memory, and a compiler to generate data plane programs and control plane APIs. Testbed experiments show that NetVRM generalizes to a diverse variety of applications, and that its utility-based dynamic allocation policy outperforms static resource allocation. Specifically, it improves the mean satisfaction ratio (i.e., the fraction of a network application’s lifetime that it meets its utility target) by 1.6–2.2× undermore »a range of workloads.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 4, 2023
  8. Due to the open nature of wireless medium, wireless communications are especially vulnerable to eavesdropping attacks. This paper designs a new wireless communication system to deal with eavesdropping attacks. The proposed system can enable a legitimate receiver to get desired messages and meanwhile an eavesdropper to hear ``fake" but meaningful messages by combining confidentiality and deception, thereby confusing the eavesdropper and achieving additional concealment that further protects exchanged messages. Towards this goal, we propose techniques that can conceal exchanged messages by utilizing wireless channel characteristics between the transmitter and the receiver, as well as techniques that can attract an eavesdropper to gradually approach a trap region, where the eavesdropper can get fake messages. We also provide both theoretical and empirical analysis of the established secure channel between the transmitter and the receiver. We develop a prototype system using Universal Software Defined Radio Peripherals (USRPs)Experimental results show that an eavesdropper at a trap location can receive fake information with a bit error rate (BER) close to 0, and the transmitter with multiple antennas can successfully deploy a trap area.