High-spectral-purity frequency-agile room-temperature sources in the terahertz spectrum are foundational elements for imaging, sensing, metrology, and communications. Here we present a chip-scale optical parametric oscillator based on an integrated nonlinear microresonator that provides broadly tunable single-frequency and multi-frequency oscillators in the terahertz regime. Through optical-to-terahertz down-conversion using a plasmonic nanoantenna array, coherent terahertz radiation spanning 2.8-octaves is achieved from 330 GHz to 2.3 THz, with ≈20 GHz cavity-mode-limited frequency tuning step and ≈10 MHz intracavity-mode continuous frequency tuning range at each step. By controlling the microresonator intracavity power and pump-resonance detuning, tunable multi-frequency terahertz oscillators are also realized. Furthermore, by stabilizing the microresonator pump power and wavelength, sub-100 Hz linewidth of the terahertz radiation with 10−15residual frequency instability is demonstrated. The room-temperature generation of both single-frequency, frequency-agile terahertz radiation and multi-frequency terahertz oscillators in the chip-scale platform offers unique capabilities in metrology, sensing, imaging and communications.
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Coherent terahertz radiation with 2.8-octave tunability through chip-scale photomixed microresonator optical parametric oscillation
Dissipative Kerr soliton generation in chip-scale nonlinear resonators has recently observed remarkable advances, spanning from massively parallel communications, to self-referenced oscillators, and to dual-comb spectroscopy. Often working in the anomalous dispersion regime, unique driving protocols and dispersion in these nonlinear resonators have been examined to achieve the soliton and soliton-like temporal pulse shapes and coherent frequency comb generation. The normal dispersion regime provides a complementary approach to bridge the nonlinear dynamical studies, including the possibility of square pulse formation with flattop plateaus, or platicons. Here we report observations of square pulse formation in chip-scale frequency combs through stimulated pumping at one free spectral range and in silicon nitride rings with
normal group velocity dispersion. Tuning of the platicon frequency comb via a varied sideband modulation frequency is examined in both spectral and temporal measurements. Determined by second-harmonic autocorrelation and cross correlation, we observe bright square platicon pulse of 17 ps pulse width on a 19 GHz flat frequency comb. With auxiliary-laser-assisted thermal stabilization, we surpass the thermal bistable dragging and extend the mode-locking access to narrower 2 ps platicon pulse states, supported by nonlinear dynamical modeling and boundary limit discussions.
Measurement of sub-fm/Hz 1/2 displacement spectral densities in ultrahigh-Q single-crystal microcavities with hertz-level lasers
Tracing a resonance frequency of a high quality factor (
Q) optical cavity facilitates subpicometer displacement measurements of the optical cavity via Pound–Drever–Hall (PDH) locking scheme, tightly synchronizing a laser frequency to the optical cavity. Here we present observations of subfemtometer displacements on a ultrahigh- Qsingle-crystal whispering-gallery-mode microcavity by frequency synchronization between a 1 Hz cavity-stabilized laser and a resonance of the cavity using PDH laser-cavity locking. We characterize not only the displacement spectral density of the microcavity with a sensitivity of over the Fourier offset frequency ranging from 15 mHz to 100 kHz but also a 1.77 nm displacement fluctuation of the microcavity over 4500 s. Such measurement capability not only supports the analysis of integrated thermodynamical and technical cavity noise but allows for minute displacement measurements using laser-cavity locking for ultraprecise positioning, metrology, and sensing.
We describe the Milky Way Survey (MWS) that will be undertaken with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) on the Mayall 4 m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Over the next 5 yr DESI MWS will observe approximately seven million stars at Galactic latitudes ∣
b∣ > 20°, with an inclusive target selection scheme focused on the thick disk and stellar halo. MWS will also include several high-completeness samples of rare stellar types, including white dwarfs, low-mass stars within 100 pc of the Sun, and horizontal branch stars. We summarize the potential of DESI to advance understanding of the Galactic structure and stellar evolution. We introduce the final definitions of the main MWS target classes and estimate the number of stars in each class that will be observed. We describe our pipelines for deriving radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and chemical abundances. We use ≃500,000 spectra of unique stellar targets from the DESI Survey Validation program (SV) to demonstrate that our pipelines can measure radial velocities to ≃1 km s−1and [Fe/H] accurate to ≃0.2 dex for typical stars in our main sample. We find the stellar parameter distributions from ≈100 deg2of SV observations with ≳90% completeness on our mainmore »