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  1. Boolean matrix factorization (BMF) has been widely utilized in fields such as recommendation systems, graph learning, text mining, and -omics data analysis. Traditional BMF methods decompose a binary matrix into the Boolean product of two lower-rank Boolean matrices plus homoscedastic random errors. However, real-world binary data typically involves biases arising from heterogeneous row- and column-wise signal distributions. Such biases can lead to suboptimal fitting and unexplainable predictions if not accounted for. In this study, we reconceptualize the binary data generation as the Boolean sum of three components: a binary pattern matrix, a background bias matrix influenced by heterogeneous row or column distributions, and random flipping errors. We introduce a novel Disentangled Representation Learning for Binary matrices (DRLB) method, which employs a dual auto-encoder network to reveal the true patterns. DRLB can be seamlessly integrated with existing BMF techniques to facilitate bias-aware BMF. Our experiments with both synthetic and real-world datasets show that DRLB significantly enhances the precision of traditional BMF methods while offering high scalability. Moreover, the bias matrix detected by DRLB accurately reflects the inherent biases in synthetic data, and the patterns identified in the bias-corrected real-world data exhibit enhanced interpretability. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 26, 2025
  2. Measurements of rovibrational spectra of clusters provide physical insight only if spectral lines can be assigned to pairs of quantum states, and further insight is obtained if one can deduce the quantitative energy-level pattern. Both steps can be so difficult that some measured spectra remain unassigned, one example isorthoH2–CO. To extend the scope of spectroscopic insights, we propose to use theoretical information in interpretation of spectra. We first performed high accuracy, full-dimensional calculations of theorthoH2–CO spectrum, at the highest practically achievable levels of electronic structure theory and quantum nuclear dynamics. Then, an iterative, theory-guided method developed here allowed us to fully interpret the spectrum oforthoH2–CO, extending the range of van der Waals clusters for which spectroscopy can provide physical insights.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 23, 2025
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 12, 2025
  4. Electronic devicesforrecording neuralactivityinthe nervoussyste m needto bescalableacrosslargespatialandte mporalscales whilealso providing millisecondandsingle-cellspatiote mporalresolution. H o w e v e r, e xi s ti n g hi g h- r e s ol u ti o n n e u r al r e c o r di n g d e vi c e s c a n n o t achievesi multaneousscalability on bothspatialandte mporallevels due toatrade-offbetweensensordensityand mechanicalflexibility. Here weintroduceathree-di mensional(3D)stackingi mplantableelectronic platfor m,basedonperfluorinateddielectricelasto mersandtissue-levelsoft multilayerelectrodes,thatenablesspatiote mporallyscalablesingle-cell neuralelectrophysiologyinthenervoussyste m. Ourelasto mersexhibit stable dielectric perfor mancefor overayearin physiologicalsolutions andare10,000ti messofterthanconventional plastic dielectrics. By leveragingthese uniquecharacteristics we developthe packaging of lithographednano metre-thickelectrodearraysina3Dconfiguration with across-sectionaldensityof7.6electrodesper100μ m2.Theresulting3D integrated multilayersoftelectrodearrayretainstissue-levelflexibility, reducingchronici m muneresponsesin mouse neuraltissues,and de monstratestheabilitytoreliablytrackelectricalactivityinthe mouse brain orspinalcord over months without disruptingani mal behaviour. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025

    We present the analysis of cloud–cloud collision (CCC) process in the Galactic molecular complex S235. Our new CO observations performed with the PMO-13.7 m telescope reveal two molecular clouds, namely the S235-Main and the S235-ABC, with ∼4 km s−1 velocity separation. The bridge feature, the possible colliding interface and the complementary distribution of the two clouds are significant observational signatures of cloud–cloud collision in S235. The most direct evidence of cloud–cloud collision process in S235 is that the S235-Main (in a distance of 1547$^{+44}_{-43}$ pc) and S235-ABC (1567$^{+33}_{-39}$ pc) meet at almost the same position (within 1σ error range) at a supersonic relative speed. We identified ten 13CO clumps from PMO-13.7 m observations, 22 dust cores from the archival SCUBA-2 data, and 550 YSOs from NIR–MIR data. 63 per cent of total YSOs are clustering in seven MST groups (M1−M7). The tight association between the YSO groups (M1 $\&$ M7) and the bridge feature suggests that the CCC process triggers star formation there. The collisional impact subregion (the South) shows 3 ∼ 5 times higher CFE and SFE (average value of 12.3 and 10.6 per cent, respectively) than the non-collisional impact subregion (2.4 and 2.6 per cent, respectively), suggesting that the CCC process may have enhanced the CFE and SFE of the clouds compared to those without collision influence.

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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 12, 2024
  7. Abstract

    Compound leaf development requires the coordination of genetic factors, hormones, and other signals. In this study, we explored the functions of Class ⅡKNOTTED‐like homeobox (KNOXII) genes in the model leguminous plantMedicago truncatula. Phenotypic and genetic analyses suggest thatMtKNOX4,5are able to repress leaflet formation, whileMtKNOX3,9,10are not involved in this developmental process. Further investigations have shown that MtKNOX4 represses the CK signal transduction, which is downstream of MtKNOXⅠ‐mediated CK biosynthesis. Additionally, two boundary genes,FUSED COMPOUND LEAF1(orthologue ofArabidopsisClass MKNOX) andNO APICAL MERISTEM(orthologue ofArabidopsis CUP‐SHAPED COTYLEDON), are necessary for MtKNOX4‐mediated compound leaf formation. These findings suggest, that among the members of MtKNOXⅡ, MtKNOX4 plays a crucial role in integrating the CK pathway and boundary regulators, providing new insights into the roles of MtKNOXⅡ in regulating the elaboration of compound leaves inM. truncatula.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  8. Abstract

    Lithium-based nonaqueous redox flow batteries (LRFBs) are alternative systems to conventional aqueous redox flow batteries because of their higher operating voltage and theoretical energy density. However, the use of ion-selective membranes limits the large-scale applicability of LRFBs. Here, we report high-voltage membrane-free LRFBs based on an all-organic biphasic system that uses Li metal anode and 2,4,6-tri-(1-cyclohexyloxy-4-imino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine)-1,3,5-triazine (Tri-TEMPO), N-propyl phenothiazine (C3-PTZ), and tris(dialkylamino)cyclopropenium (CP) cathodes. Under static conditions, the Li||Tri-TEMPO, Li||C3-PTZ, and Li||CP batteries with 0.5 M redox-active material deliver capacity retentions of 98%, 98%, and 92%, respectively, for 100 cycles over ~55 days at the current density of 1 mA/cm2and a temperature of 27 °C. Moreover, the Li||Tri-TEMPO (0.5 M) flow battery delivers an initial average cell discharge voltage of 3.45 V and an energy density of ~33 Wh/L. This flow battery also demonstrates 81% of capacity for 100 cycles over ~45 days with average Coulombic efficiency of 96% and energy efficiency of 82% at the current density of 1.5 mA/cm2and at a temperature of 27 °C.

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