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  1. Traversals are commonly seen in tree data structures, and performance-enhancing transformations between tree traversals are critical for many applications. Existing approaches to reasoning about tree traversals and their transformations are ad hoc, with various limitations on the classes of traversals they can handle, the granularity of dependence analysis, and the types of possible transformations. We propose Retreet, a framework in which one can describe general recursive tree traversals, precisely represent iterations, schedules and dependences, and automatically check data-race-freeness and transformation correctness. The crux of the framework is a stack-based representation for iterations and an encoding to Monadic Second-Order (MSO) logicmore »over trees. Experiments show that Retreet can automatically verify optimizations for complex traversals on real-world data structures, such as CSS and cycletrees, which are not possible before. Our framework is also integrated with other MSO-based analysis techniques to verify even more challenging program transformations.« less
  2. Syntax-guided synthesis (SyGuS) aims to find a program satisfying semantic specification as well as user-provided structural hypotheses. There are two main synthesis approaches: enumerative synthesis, which repeatedly enumerates possible candidate programs and checks their correctness, and deductive synthesis, which leverages a symbolic procedure to construct implementations from specifications. Neither approach is strictly better than the other: automated deductive synthesis is usually very efficient but only works for special grammars or applications; enumerative synthesis is very generally applicable but limited in scalability. In this paper, we propose a cooperative synthesis technique for SyGuS problems with the conditional linear integer arithmetic (CLIA)more »background theory, as a novel integration of the two approaches, combining the best of the two worlds. The technique exploits several novel divide-and-conquer strategies to split a large synthesis problem to smaller subproblems. The subproblems are solved separately and their solutions are combined to form a final solution. The technique integrates two synthesis engines: a pure deductive component that can efficiently solve some problems, and a height-based enumeration algorithm that can handle arbitrary grammar. We implemented the cooperative synthesis technique, and evaluated it on a wide range of benchmarks. Experiments showed that our technique can solve many challenging synthesis problems not possible before, and tends to be more scalable than state-of-the-art synthesis algorithms.« less
  3. We present DRYADdec, a decidable logic that allows reasoning about tree data-structures with measurements. This logic supports user-defined recursive measure functions based on Max or Sum, and recursive predicates based on these measure functions, such as AVL trees or red-black trees. We prove that the logic’s satisfiability is decidable. The crux of the decidability proof is a small model property which allows us to reduce the satisfiability of DRYADdec to quantifier-free linear arithmetic theory which can be solved efficiently using SMT solvers. We also show that DRYADdec can encode a variety of verification and synthesis problems, including natural proof verificationmore »conditions for functional correctness of recursive tree-manipulating programs, legality conditions for fusing tree traversals, synthesis conditions for conditional linear-integer arithmetic functions. We developed the decision procedure and successfully solved 220+ DRYADdec formulae raised from these application scenarios, including verifying functional correctness of programs manipulating AVL trees, red-black trees and treaps, checking the fusibility of height-based mutually recursive tree traversals, and counterexample-guided synthesis from linear integer arithmetic specifications. To our knowledge, DRYADdec is the first decidable logic that can solve such a wide variety of problems requiring flexible combination of measure-related, data-related and shape-related properties for trees.« less
  4. While the networking community has extensively tackled network design problems using optimization or other techniques (e.g., in areas such as traffic-engineering, and resource allocation), much of this work focuses on efficiently generating designs assuming well-defined objectives. In this paper, we argue that in practice, the objectives of a network design task may not be easy to specify for an architect. We argue for, and present a structured approach where the objectives of a network design task are learnt through iterative interactions with the architect. Our approach is inspired by a programming-by-examples approach that has seen success in the programming languagesmore »community. However, conventional program synthesis techniques do not apply because in our context a user can only provide a relative comparison between multiple choices on which one is more desirable, rather than provide an exact output for a given input. We propose a novel comparative synthesis approach to tackle these challenges. We sketch the approach, present promising preliminary results, and discuss future research questions.« less