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  1. This study examines the impacts of assimilating ocean-surface winds derived from the NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) on improving the short-range numerical simulations and forecasts of landfalling hurricanes using the NCEP operational Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) model. A series of data assimilation experiments are performed using HWRF and a Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI)-based hybrid 3-dimensional ensemble-variational (3DEnVar) data assimilation system. The influence of CYGNSS data on hurricane forecasts is compared with that of Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) wind products that have already been assimilated into the HWRF forecast system in a series of assimilation experiments. The effectsmore »of different versions of CYGNSS data (V2.1 vs. V3.0) on hurricane forecasts are evaluated. The results indicate that CYGNSS ocean-surface wind can lead to improved numerical simulations and forecasts of hurricane track and intensity, asymmetric wind structure, and precipitation. The impacts of CYGNSS on hurricane forecasts are comparable and complementary to the operational use of ASCAT satellite data products. The dependence of the relative impacts of different versions of CYGNSS data on optimal thinning distances is evident.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
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  5. Drouhin, Henri-Jean M. ; Wegrowe, Jean-Eric ; Razeghi, Manijeh (Ed.)
    Parafermions or Fibonacci anyons leading to universal quantum computing, require strongly interacting systems. A leading contender is the fractional quantum Hall effect, where helical channels can arise from counterpropagating chiral modes. These modes have been considered weakly interacting. However, experiments on transport in helical channels in the fractional quantum Hall effect at a 2/3 filling shows current passing through helical channels on the boundary between polarized and unpolarized quantum Hall liquids nine-fold smaller than expected. This current can increase three-fold when nuclei near the boundary are spin polarized. We develop a microscopic theory of strongly interacting helical states and showmore »that emerging helical Luttinger liquid manifests itself as unequally populated charge, spin and neutral modes in polarized and unpolarized fractional quantum Hall liquids. We show that at strong coupling counter-propagating modes of opposite spin polarization emerge at the sample edges, providing a viable path for generating proximity topological superconductivity and parafermions. Current, calculated in strongly interacting picture is in agreement with the experimental data.« less
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  7. Abstract

    Domain walls in fractional quantum Hall ferromagnets are gapless helical one-dimensional channels formed at the boundaries of topologically distinct quantum Hall (QH) liquids. Naïvely, these helical domain walls (hDWs) constitute two counter-propagating chiral states with opposite spins. Coupled to an s-wave superconductor, helical channels are expected to lead to topological superconductivity with high order non-Abelian excitations1–3. Here we investigate transport properties of hDWs in theν = 2/3 fractional QH regime. Experimentally we found that current carried by hDWs is substantially smaller than the prediction of the naïve model. Luttinger liquid theory of the system reveals redistribution of currents between quasiparticle charge,more »spin and neutral modes, and predicts the reduction of the hDW current. Inclusion of spin-non-conserving tunneling processes reconciles theory with experiment. The theory confirms emergence of spin modes required for the formation of fractional topological superconductivity.

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  8. Abstract Gene regulatory elements are central drivers of phenotypic variation and thus of critical importance towards understanding the genetics of complex traits. The Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes consortium was formed to collaboratively annotate the functional elements in animal genomes, starting with domesticated animals. Here we present an expansive collection of datasets from eight diverse tissues in three important agricultural species: chicken ( Gallus gallus ), pig ( Sus scrofa ), and cattle ( Bos taurus ). Comparative analysis of these datasets and those from the human and mouse Encyclopedia of DNA Elements projects reveal that a core set ofmore »regulatory elements are functionally conserved independent of divergence between species, and that tissue-specific transcription factor occupancy at regulatory elements and their predicted target genes are also conserved. These datasets represent a unique opportunity for the emerging field of comparative epigenomics, as well as the agricultural research community, including species that are globally important food resources.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022