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  1. Inorganic lead-halide perovskite, cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3), shows outstanding optoelectronic properties. Both solution- and melt-based methods have been proposed for CsPbBr3 crystal growth. The solution-based growth was done at low-temperature, whereas the melt-based growth was done at high-temperature. However, the comparison of optical, physical, and defect states using these two different growth conditions has been scarcely studied. Here, we have compared the thermal and optical properties of solution-grown and melt-grown single crystals of CsPbBr3. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) analysis showed that melt-grown crystal has a relatively smaller number of defects than the chemical synthesis method. In addition, crystals grown using the chemical method showed a higher fluorescence lifetime than melt-grown CsPbBr3. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
  3. Abstract

    We performed a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of candle-flame-shaped flares observed with theAtmospheric Imaging Assemblyonboard theSolar Dynamic Observatory. The DEM profile of flaring plasmas generally exhibits a double peak distribution in temperature, with a cold component around$\log T\approx6.2$logT6.2and a hot component around$\log T\approx7.0$logT7.0. Attributing the cold component mainly to the coronal background, we propose a mean temperature weighted by the hot DEM component as a better representation of flaring plasma than the conventionally defined mean temperature, which is weighted by the whole DEM profile. Based on this corrected mean temperature, the majority of the flares studied, including a confined flare with a double candle-flame shape sharing the same cusp-shaped structure, resemble the famous Tsuneta flare in temperature distribution,i.e., the cusp-shaped structure has systematically higher temperatures than the rounded flare arcade underneath. However, the M7.7 flare on 19 July 2012 poses a very intriguing violation of this paradigm: the temperature decreases with altitude from the tip of the cusp toward the top of the arcade; the hottest region is slightly above the X-ray loop-top source that is co-spatial with the emission-measure-enhanced region at the top of the arcade. This signifies that a different heating mechanism from the slow-mode shocks attached to the reconnection site operates in the cusp region during the flare decay phase.

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