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  1. Neuromorphic computers could overcome efficiency bottlenecks inherent to conventional computing through parallel programming and readout of artificial neural network weights in a crossbar memory array. However, selective and linear weight updates and <10-nanoampere read currents are required for learning that surpasses conventional computing efficiency. We introduce an ionic floating-gate memory array based on a polymer redox transistor connected to a conductive-bridge memory (CBM). Selective and linear programming of a redox transistor array is executed in parallel by overcoming the bridging threshold voltage of the CBMs. Synaptic weight readout with currents <10 nanoamperes is achieved by diluting the conductive polymer with an insulator to decrease the conductance. The redox transistors endure >1 billion write-read operations and support >1-megahertz write-read frequencies.
  2. Abstract

    Memristors with tunable resistance states are emerging building blocks of artificial neural networks. However, in situ learning on a large-scale multiple-layer memristor network has yet to be demonstrated because of challenges in device property engineering and circuit integration. Here we monolithically integrate hafnium oxide-based memristors with a foundry-made transistor array into a multiple-layer neural network. We experimentally demonstrate in situ learning capability and achieve competitive classification accuracy on a standard machine learning dataset, which further confirms that the training algorithm allows the network to adapt to hardware imperfections. Our simulation using the experimental parameters suggests that a larger network would further increase the classification accuracy. The memristor neural network is a promising hardware platform for artificial intelligence with high speed-energy efficiency.