skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Wang, Zi"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    Aqueous zinc-ion batteries, in terms of integration with high safety, environmental benignity, and low cost, have attracted much attention for powering electronic devices and storage systems. However, the interface instability issues at the Zn anode caused by detrimental side reactions such as dendrite growth, hydrogen evolution, and metal corrosion at the solid (anode)/liquid (electrolyte) interface impede their practical applications in the fields requiring long-term performance persistence. Despite the rapid progress in suppressing the side reactions at the materials interface, the mechanism of ion storage and dendrite formation in practical aqueous zinc-ion batteries with dual-cation aqueous electrolytes is still unclear. Herein, we design an interface material consisting of forest-like three-dimensional zinc-copper alloy with engineered surfaces to explore the Zn plating/stripping mode in dual-cation electrolytes. The three-dimensional nanostructured surface of zinc-copper alloy is demonstrated to be in favor of effectively regulating the reaction kinetics of Zn plating/stripping processes. The developed interface materials suppress the dendrite growth on the anode surface towards high-performance persistent aqueous zinc-ion batteries in the aqueous electrolytes containing single and dual cations. This work remarkably enhances the fundamental understanding of dual-cation intercalation chemistry in aqueous electrochemical systems and provides a guide for exploring high-performance aqueous zinc-ion batteries andmore »beyond.

    « less
  2. Abstract The mechanically induced symmetry-allowed disrotatory ring openings of cis- and trans-gem-dichlorocyclopropane (gDCC) diesters are demonstrated through sonication and single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) studies. In contrast to the previously reported symmetry-forbidden conrotatory ring opening of alkyl-tethered trans-gDCC, we show that the diester-tethered trans-gDCC primarily undergoes a symmetry-allowed disrotatory pathway even at the high forces (>2 nN) and short-time scales (ms or less) of sonication and SMFS experiments. The quantitative force-rate data obtained from SMFS data is consistent with computational models of transition-state geometry for the symmetry-allowed process, and activation lengths of 1.41 ± 0.02 Å and 1.08 ± 0.03 Å are inferred for the cis-gDCC diester and trans-gDCC diester, respectively. The strong mechanochemical coupling in the trans-gDCC is notable, given that the directionality of the applied force may appear initially to oppose the disrotatory motion associated with the reaction. The stereochemical perturbations of mechanical coupling created by the ester attachments reinforce the complexity that is possible in covalent polymer mechanochemistry and illustrate the breadth of reactivity outcomes that are available through judicious mechanophore design.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 16, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  5. To verify safety and robustness of neural networks, researchers have successfully applied abstract interpretation , primarily using the interval abstract domain. In this paper, we study the theoretical power and limits of the interval domain for neural-network verification. First, we introduce the interval universal approximation (IUA) theorem. IUA shows that neural networks not only can approximate any continuous function f (universal approximation) as we have known for decades, but we can find a neural network, using any well-behaved activation function, whose interval bounds are an arbitrarily close approximation of the set semantics of f (the result of applying f to a set of inputs). We call this notion of approximation interval approximation . Our theorem generalizes the recent result of Baader et al. from ReLUs to a rich class of activation functions that we call squashable functions . Additionally, the IUA theorem implies that we can always construct provably robust neural networks under ℓ ∞ -norm using almost any practical activation function. Second, we study the computational complexity of constructing neural networks that are amenable to precise interval analysis. This is a crucial question, as our constructive proof of IUA is exponential in the size of the approximation domain. Wemore »boil this question down to the problem of approximating the range of a neural network with squashable activation functions. We show that the range approximation problem (RA) is a Δ 2 -intermediate problem, which is strictly harder than NP -complete problems, assuming coNP ⊄ NP . As a result, IUA is an inherently hard problem : No matter what abstract domain or computational tools we consider to achieve interval approximation, there is no efficient construction of such a universal approximator. This implies that it is hard to construct a provably robust network, even if we have a robust network to start with.« less
  6. WiFi human sensing has become increasingly attractive in enabling emerging human-computer interaction applications. The corresponding technique has gradually evolved from the classification of multiple activity types to more fine-grained tracking of 3D human poses. However, existing WiFi-based 3D human pose tracking is limited to a set of predefined activities. In this work, we present Winect, a 3D human pose tracking system for free-form activity using commodity WiFi devices. Our system tracks free-form activity by estimating a 3D skeleton pose that consists of a set of joints of the human body. In particular, we combine signal separation and joint movement modeling to achieve free-form activity tracking. Our system first identifies the moving limbs by leveraging the two-dimensional angle of arrival of the signals reflected off the human body and separates the entangled signals for each limb. Then, it tracks each limb and constructs a 3D skeleton of the body by modeling the inherent relationship between the movements of the limb and the corresponding joints. Our evaluation results show that Winect is environment-independent and achieves centimeter-level accuracy for free-form activity tracking under various challenging environments including the none-line-of-sight (NLoS) scenarios.
  7. The objective of this work is to augment the basic abilities of a robot by learning to use sensorimotor primitives to solve complex long-horizon manipulation problems. This requires flexible generative planning that can combine primitive abilities in novel combinations and, thus, generalize across a wide variety of problems. In order to plan with primitive actions, we must have models of the actions: under what circumstances will executing this primitive successfully achieve some particular effect in the world? We use, and develop novel improvements to, state-of-the-art methods for active learning and sampling. We use Gaussian process methods for learning the constraints on skill effectiveness from small numbers of expensive-to-collect training examples. In addition, we develop efficient adaptive sampling methods for generating a comprehensive and diverse sequence of continuous candidate control parameter values (such as pouring waypoints for a cup) during planning. These values become end-effector goals for traditional motion planners that then solve for a full robot motion that performs the skill. By using learning and planning methods in conjunction, we take advantage of the strengths of each and plan for a wide variety of complex dynamic manipulation tasks. We demonstrate our approach in an integrated system, combining traditional robotics primitivesmore »with our newly learned models using an efficient robot task and motion planner. We evaluate our approach both in simulation and in the real world through measuring the quality of the selected primitive actions. Finally, we apply our integrated system to a variety of long-horizon simulated and real-world manipulation problems.« less