skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Wanless, V. Dorsey"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. The Northwestern Hawaiian Ridge is an age-progressive volcanic chain sourced from the Hawaiian mantle plume. Proximal to the Northwestern Hawaiian Ridge are several clusters of smaller seamounts and ridges with limited age constraints and unknown geodynamic origins. This study presents new bathymetric data and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from lava flow samples recovered by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) from two east–west-trending chains of seamounts that lie north of the Pūhāhonu and Mokumanamana volcanoes. The previously unexplored Naifeh Chain (28°48′N,167°48′W) and Plumeria Chain (25°36′N, 164°35′W) contain five volcanic structures each, including three guyots in the Naifeh Chain. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations indicate that the Naifeh Chain formed ca. 88 Ma and the Plumeria Chain ca. 85 Ma. The Cretaceous ages, coupled with a perpendicular orientation of the seamounts relative to absolute Pacific plate motion at that time, eliminate either a Miocene Hawaiian volcanic arch or Cretaceous mantle-plume origin. The seamounts lie on oceanic crust that is modeled to be 10–15 Ma older than the corresponding seamounts. Here, two models are put forth to explain the origin of these enigmatic seamount chains as well as the similar nearby Mendelssohn Seamounts. (1) Diffuse lithospheric extension results in the formation of these seamounts until the initiation of the Kula-Pacific spreading center in the north at 84–79 Ma, which alleviates the tension. (2) Shear-driven upwelling of enriched mantle material beneath young oceanic lithosphere results in an age-progressive seamount track that is approximately perpendicular to the spreading ridge. Here we show that all sampled seamounts proximal to the Northwestern Hawaiian Ridge are intraplate in nature, but their formations can be attributed to both plume and plate processes. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 2, 2024
  2. null (Ed.)
  3. Abstract

    Volcanic seamount chains on the flanks of mid‐ocean ridges record variability in magmatic processes associated with mantle melting over several millions of years. However, the relative timing of magmatism on individual seamounts along a chain can be difficult to estimate withoutin situsampling and is further hampered by Ar40/Ar39dating limitations. The 8°20’N seamount chain extends ∼170 km west from the fast‐spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR), north of and parallel to the western Siqueiros fracture zone. Here, we use multibeam bathymetric data to investigate relationships between abyssal hill formation and seamount volcanism, transform fault slip, and tectonic rotation. Near‐bottom compressed high‐intensity radiated pulse, bathymetric, and sidescan sonar data collected with the autonomous underwater vehicleSentryare used to test the hypothesis that seamount volcanism is age‐progressive along the seamount chain. Although sediment on seamount flanks is likely to be reworked by gravitational mass‐wasting and current activity, bathymetric relief andSentryvehicle heading analysis suggest that sedimentary accumulations on seamount summits are likely to be relatively pristine. Sediment thickness on the seamounts' summits does not increase linearly with nominal crustal age, as would be predicted if seamounts were constructed proximal to the EPR axis and then aged as the lithosphere cooled and subsided away from the ridge. The thickest sediments are found at the center of the chain, implying the most ancient volcanism there, rather than on seamounts furthest from the EPR. The nonlinear sediment thickness along the 8°20’N seamounts suggests that volcanism can persist off‐axis for several million years.

    more » « less