We consider optimal control of fractional in time (subdiffusive, i.e., for
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) semilinear parabolic PDEs associated with various notions of diffusion operators in an unifying fashion. Under general assumptions on the nonlinearity we\begin{document}$ 0<\gamma <1 $\end{document} the existence and regularity of solutions to the forward and the associated\begin{document}$\mathsf{first\;show}$\end{document} problems. In the second part, we prove existence of optimal\begin{document}$\mathsf{backward\;(adjoint)}$\end{document} and characterize the associated\begin{document}$\mathsf{controls }$\end{document} optimality conditions. Several examples involving fractional in time (and some fractional in space diffusion) equations are described in detail. The most challenging obstacle we overcome is the failure of the semigroup property for the semilinear problem in any scaling of (frequencydomain) Hilbert spaces.\begin{document}$\mathsf{first\;order}$\end{document} 
In this paper, we consider the optimal control of semilinear fractional PDEs with both spectral and integral fractional diffusion operators of order 2 s with s ∈ (0, 1). We first prove the boundedness of solutions to both semilinear fractional PDEs under minimal regularity assumptions on domain and data. We next introduce an optimal growth condition on the nonlinearity to show the Lipschitz continuity of the solution map for the semilinear elliptic equations with respect to the data. We further apply our ideas to show existence of solutions to optimal control problems with semilinear fractional equations as constraints. Under the standard assumptions on the nonlinearity (twice continuously differentiable) we derive the first and second order optimality conditions.

In [Antil et al. Inverse Probl. 35 (2019) 084003.] we introduced a new notion of optimal control and source identification (inverse) problems where we allow the control/source to be outside the domain where the fractional elliptic PDE is fulfilled. The current work extends this previous work to the parabolic case. Several new mathematical tools have been developed to handle the parabolic problem. We tackle the Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin cases. The need for these novel optimal control concepts stems from the fact that the classical PDE models only allow placing the control/source either on the boundary or in the interior where the PDE is satisfied. However, the nonlocal behavior of the fractional operator now allows placing the control/source in the exterior. We introduce the notions of weak and veryweak solutions to the fractional parabolic Dirichlet problem. We present an approach on how to approximate the fractional parabolic Dirichlet solutions by the fractional parabolic Robin solutions (with convergence rates). A complete analysis for the Dirichlet and Robin optimal control problems has been discussed. The numerical examples confirm our theoretical findings and further illustrate the potential benefits of nonlocal models over the local ones.