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    We compile optical and mid-infrared light curves from the time-domain surveys (i.e. CRTS, PTF, ZTF, and ASAS-SN) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) archive for a selected sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with Hβ reverberation mapping (RM) measurements. We measure the time lags (and thus torus sizes) of W1 (∼3.4 $\mu$ m) and W2 (∼4.6 $\mu$ m) band light curves relative to the optical one using the MICA method. Through Hβ RM, the sample has well-measured AGN properties, therefore allowing us to reliably constrain the relations between torus sizes and AGN properties. We perform linear regressions for the relations between torus sizes and 5100 Å luminosities ($R\propto L_{5100}^{\beta }$ ) in two cases: β = 0.5 and β set free. The latter case yields β ≈ 0.37 ± 0.028 for both W1 and W2 bands, shallower than the expected value of 0.5, possibly due to the dependence of torus size on accretion rate. For β = 0.5, by combining with the previous K band RM measurements, we obtain the characteristic broad-line region (BLR) and tours sizes following RBLR:RK :RW1:RW2 = 1.0:6.2:9.2:11.2. We investigate the deviations of the W1 and W2 band observed torus sizes from the corresponding best-fitting relations (with β = 0.5) and find that theymore »both are correlated with accretion rate. As the accretion rate increases, the torus sizes tend to be shortened compared to the anticipated sizes from the best-fitting relations, similar to the behaviour found in BLRs. Such behaviours can be explained by the self-shadowing effect of slim discs. This is further supported by ratios of the W1 and W2 band torus sizes to BLR sizes, which do not show significant correlations with AGN properties.

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  2. Abstract In this third paper of the series reporting on the reverberation mapping campaign of active galactic nuclei with asymmetric H β emission-line profiles, we present results for 15 Palomar–Green quasars using spectra obtained between the end of 2016–2021 May. This campaign combines long time spans with relatively high cadence. For eight objects, both the time lags obtained from the entire light curves and the measurements from individual observing seasons are provided. Reverberation mapping of nine of our targets has been attempted for the first time, while the results for six others can be compared with previous campaigns. We measure the H β time lags over periods of years and estimate their black hole masses. The long duration of the campaign enables us to investigate their broad-line region (BLR) geometry and kinematics for different years by using velocity-resolved lags, which demonstrate signatures of diverse BLR geometry and kinematics. The BLR geometry and kinematics of individual objects are discussed. In this sample, the BLR kinematics of Keplerian/virialized motion and inflow is more common than that of outflow.
  3. Abstract

    Ocean surface albedo (OSA) is an important factor for the transfer of radiation in the coupled atmosphere‐ocean system. By resolving the spectral variations of the reflective properties for incident direct and diffuse solar radiation, we develop an OSA computational scheme to study the impact of ocean biogeochemistry on the air‐sea boundary condition of solar radiative transfer in the atmosphere. The new scheme is implemented for the General Circulation Model applications of the shortwave rapid radiative transfer model RRTMG_SW, a radiative transfer model used extensively in regional and global models. We show that a number of OSA schemes lead to underestimated results in comparison with in‐situ measurements obtained at a site 25 km east of Virginia Beach. The scheme developed in this study considers multiple influential factors and is robust in terms of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the root mean square error in comparison with in‐situ measurements. Furthermore, the new simulations are highly consistent with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) OSA distribution on a global scale. However, the theoretical results show slight differences compared with the CERES OSA under all sky conditions and overestimate the OSA in the subpolar Southern Ocean under clear skymore »conditions. The assumption of a uniform phase function, which neglects the spatial variability of the optical properties of oceanic particles, is largely responsible for the primary source of uncertainties in an OSA scheme.

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  4. Abstract We present the first results from the ongoing, intensive, multiwavelength monitoring program of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 817. While this active galactic nucleus was, in part, selected for its historically unobscured nature, we discovered that the X-ray spectrum is highly absorbed, and there are new blueshifted, broad, and narrow UV absorption lines, which suggest that a dust-free, ionized obscurer located at the inner broad-line region partially covers the central source. Despite the obscuration, we measure UV and optical continuum reverberation lags consistent with a centrally illuminated Shakura–Sunyaev thin accretion disk, and measure reverberation lags associated with the optical broad-line region, as expected. However, in the first 55 days of the campaign, when the obscuration was becoming most extreme, we observe a de-coupling of the UV continuum and the UV broad emission-line variability. The correlation recovered in the next 42 days of the campaign, as Mrk 817 entered a less obscured state. The short C iv and Ly α lags suggest that the accretion disk extends beyond the UV broad-line region.