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  1. Abstract Van der Waals (vdW) material Fe 5 GeTe 2 , with its long-range ferromagnetic ordering near room temperature, has significant potential to become an enabling platform for implementing novel spintronic and quantum devices. To pave the way for applications, it is crucial to determine the magnetic properties when the thickness of Fe 5 GeTe 2 reaches the few-layers regime. However, this is highly challenging due to the need for a characterization technique that is local, highly sensitive, artifact-free, and operational with minimal fabrication. Prior studies have indicated that Curie temperature T C can reach up to close to room temperature for exfoliated Fe 5 GeTe 2 flakes, as measured via electrical transport; there is a need to validate these results with a measurement that reveals magnetism more directly. In this work, we investigate the magnetic properties of exfoliated thin flakes of vdW magnet Fe 5 GeTe 2 via quantum magnetic imaging technique based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond. Through imaging the stray fields, we confirm room-temperature magnetic order in Fe 5 GeTe 2 thin flakes with thickness down to 7 units cell. The stray field patterns and their response to magnetizing fields with different polarities is consistent with previously reported perpendicular easy-axis anisotropy. Furthermore, we perform imaging at different temperatures and determine the Curie temperature of the flakes at ≈300 K. These results provide the basis for realizing a room-temperature monolayer ferromagnet with Fe 5 GeTe 2 . This work also demonstrates that the imaging technique enables rapid screening of multiple flakes simultaneously as well as time-resolved imaging for monitoring time-dependent magnetic behaviors, thereby paving the way towards high throughput characterization of potential two-dimensional (2D) magnets near room temperature and providing critical insights into the evolution of domain behaviors in 2D magnets due to degradation. 
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  2. Distribution of Earth’s biomes is structured by the match between climate and plant traits, which in turn shape associated communities and ecosystem processes and services. However, that climate–trait match can be disrupted by historical events, with lasting ecosystem impacts. As Earth’s environment changes faster than at any time in human history, critical questions are whether and how organismal traits and ecosystems can adjust to altered conditions. We quantified the relative importance of current environmental forcing versus evolutionary history in shaping the growth form (stature and biomass) and associated community of eelgrass ( Zostera marina ), a widespread foundation plant of marine ecosystems along Northern Hemisphere coastlines, which experienced major shifts in distribution and genetic composition during the Pleistocene. We found that eelgrass stature and biomass retain a legacy of the Pleistocene colonization of the Atlantic from the ancestral Pacific range and of more recent within-basin bottlenecks and genetic differentiation. This evolutionary legacy in turn influences the biomass of associated algae and invertebrates that fuel coastal food webs, with effects comparable to or stronger than effects of current environmental forcing. Such historical lags in phenotypic acclimatization may constrain ecosystem adjustments to rapid anthropogenic climate change, thus altering predictions about the future functioning of ecosystems. 
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  3. While considerable evidence exists of biogeographic patterns in the intensity of species interactions, the influence of these patterns on variation in community structure is less clear. Studying how the distributions of traits in communities vary along global gradients can inform how variation in interactions and other factors contribute to the process of community assembly. Using a model selection approach on measures of trait dispersion in crustaceans associated with eelgrass ( Zostera marina ) spanning 30° of latitude in two oceans, we found that dispersion strongly increased with increasing predation and decreasing latitude. Ocean and epiphyte load appeared as secondary predictors; Pacific communities were more overdispersed while Atlantic communities were more clustered, and increasing epiphytes were associated with increased clustering. By examining how species interactions and environmental filters influence community structure across biogeographic regions, we demonstrate how both latitudinal variation in species interactions and historical contingency shape these responses. Community trait distributions have implications for ecosystem stability and functioning, and integrating large-scale observations of environmental filters, species interactions and traits can help us predict how communities may respond to environmental change. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    The global distribution of primary production and consumption by humans (fisheries) is well-documented, but we have no map linking the central ecological process of consumption within food webs to temperature and other ecological drivers. Using standardized assays that span 105° of latitude on four continents, we show that rates of bait consumption by generalist predators in shallow marine ecosystems are tightly linked to both temperature and the composition of consumer assemblages. Unexpectedly, rates of consumption peaked at midlatitudes (25 to 35°) in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres across both seagrass and unvegetated sediment habitats. This pattern contrasts with terrestrial systems, where biotic interactions reportedly weaken away from the equator, but it parallels an emerging pattern of a subtropical peak in marine biodiversity. The higher consumption at midlatitudes was closely related to the type of consumers present, which explained rates of consumption better than consumer density, biomass, species diversity, or habitat. Indeed, the apparent effect of temperature on consumption was mostly driven by temperature-associated turnover in consumer community composition. Our findings reinforce the key influence of climate warming on altered species composition and highlight its implications for the functioning of Earth’s ecosystems. 
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