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  1. Large language models have substantially advanced nuance and context understanding in natural language processing (NLP), further fueling the growth of intelligent conversational interfaces and virtual assistants. However, their hefty computational and memory demands make them potentially expensive to deploy on cloudless edge platforms with strict latency and energy requirements. For example, an inference pass using the state-of-the-art BERT-base model must serially traverse through 12 computationally intensive transformer layers, each layer containing 12 parallel attention heads whose outputs concatenate to drive a large feed-forward network. To reduce computation latency, several algorithmic optimizations have been proposed, e.g., a recent algorithm dynamically matches linguistic complexity with model sizes via entropy-based early exit. Deploying such transformer models on edge platforms requires careful co-design and optimizations from algorithms to circuits, where energy consumption is a key design consideration. 
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