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  1. Considerable attention is given to absolute nutrient levels in lakes, rivers, and oceans, but less is paid to their relative concentrations, their nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) stoichiometry, and the consequences of imbalanced stoichiometry. Here, we report 38 y of nutrient dynamics in Flathead Lake, a large oligotrophic lake in Montana, and its inflows. While nutrient levels were low, the lake had sustained high total N: total P ratios (TN:TP: 60 to 90:1 molar) throughout the observation period. N and P loading to the lake as well as loading N:P ratios varied considerably among years but showed no systematic long-term trend. Surprisingly, TN:TP ratios in river inflows were consistently lower than in the lake, suggesting that forms of P in riverine loading are removed preferentially to N. In-lake processes, such as differential sedimentation of P relative to N or accumulation of fixed N in excess of denitrification, likely also operate to maintain the lake’s high TN:TP ratios. Regardless of causes, the lake’s stoichiometric imbalance is manifested in P limitation of phytoplankton growth during early and midsummer, resulting in high C:P and N:P ratios in suspended particulate matter that propagate P limitation to zooplankton. Finally, the lake’s imbalanced N:P stoichiometry appears to raise the potential for aerobic methane production via metabolism of phosphonate compounds by P-limited microbes. These data highlight the importance of not only absolute N and P levels in aquatic ecosystems, but also their stoichiometric balance, and they call attention to potential management implications of high N:P ratios. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
    Humans demonstrate enhanced processing of human faces compared with animal faces, known as own-species bias. This bias is important for identifying people who may cause harm, as well as for recognizing friends and kin. However, growing evidence also indicates a more general face bias. Faces have high evolutionary importance beyond conspecific interactions, as they aid in detecting predators and prey. Few studies have explored the interaction of these biases together. In three experiments, we explored processing of human and animal faces, compared with each other and to nonface objects, which allowed us to examine both own-species and broader face biases. We used a dot-probe paradigm to examine human adults’ covert attentional biases for task-irrelevant human faces, animal faces, and objects. We replicated the own-species attentional bias for human faces relative to animal faces. We also found an attentional bias for animal faces relative to objects, consistent with the proposal that faces broadly receive privileged processing. Our findings suggest that humans may be attracted to a broad class of faces. Further, we found that while participants rapidly attended to human faces across all cue display durations, they attended to animal faces only when they had sufficient time to process them. Our findings reveal that the dot-probe paradigm is sensitive for capturing both own-species and more general face biases, and that each has a different attentional signature, possibly reflecting their unique but overlapping evolutionary importance. 
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