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  1. The operational safety of Automated Driving System (ADS)-Operated Vehicles (AVs) are a rising concern with the deployment of AVs as prototypes being tested and also in commercial deployment. The robustness of safety evaluation systems is essential in determining the operational safety of AVs as they interact with human-driven vehicles. Extending upon earlier works of the Institute of Automated Mobility (IAM) that have explored the Operational Safety Assessment (OSA) metrics and infrastructure-based safety monitoring systems, in this work, we compare the performance of an infrastructure-based Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) system to an onboard vehicle-based LIDAR system in testing at the Maricopa County Department of Transportation SMARTDrive testbed in Anthem, Arizona. The sensor modalities are located in infrastructure and onboard the test vehicles, including LIDAR, cameras, a real-time differential GPS, and a drone with a camera. Bespoke localization and tracking algorithms are created for the LIDAR and cameras. In total, there are 26 different scenarios of the test vehicles navigating the testbed intersection; for this work, we are only considering car following scenarios. The LIDAR data collected from the infrastructure-based and onboard vehicle-based sensors system are used to perform object detection and multi-target tracking to estimate the velocity and position information of the test vehicles and use these values to compute OSA metrics. The comparison of the performance of the two systems involves the localization and tracking errors in calculating the position and the velocity of the subject vehicle, with the real-time differential GPS data serving as ground truth for velocity comparison and tracking results from the drone for OSA metrics comparison.

     
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