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Creators/Authors contains: "Wolf, Guy"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 30, 2024
  3. Abstract Due to commonalities in pathophysiology, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) represents a uniquely accessible model to investigate therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, leading us to examine whether pathways of disease progression are shared across neurodegenerative conditions. Here we use single-nucleus RNA sequencing to profile lesions from 11 postmortem human retinas with age-related macular degeneration and 6 control retinas with no history of retinal disease. We create a machine-learning pipeline based on recent advances in data geometry and topology and identify activated glial populations enriched in the early phase of disease. Examining single-cell data from Alzheimer’s disease and progressive multiple sclerosis with our pipeline, we find a similar glial activation profile enriched in the early phase of these neurodegenerative diseases. In late-stage age-related macular degeneration, we identify a microglia-to-astrocyte signaling axis mediated by interleukin-1 β which drives angiogenesis characteristic of disease pathogenesis. We validated this mechanism using in vitro and in vivo assays in mouse, identifying a possible new therapeutic target for AMD and possibly other neurodegenerative conditions. Thus, due to shared glial states, the retina provides a potential system for investigating therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative diseases. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  4. Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) that are based on the message passing (MP) paradigm generally exchange information between 1-hop neighbors to build node representations at each layer. In principle, such networks are not able to capture long-range interactions (LRI) that may be desired or necessary for learning a given task on graphs. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in development of Transformer-based methods for graphs that can consider full node connectivity beyond the original sparse structure, thus enabling the modeling of LRI. However, MP-GNNs that simply rely on 1-hop message passing often fare better in several existing graph benchmarks when combined with positional feature representations, among other innovations, hence limiting the perceived utility and ranking of Transformer-like architectures. Here, we present the Long Range Graph Benchmark (LRGB)1 with 5 graph learning datasets: PascalVOC-SP, COCO-SP, PCQM-Contact, Peptides-func and Peptides-struct that arguably require LRI reasoning to achieve strong performance in a given task. We benchmark both baseline GNNs and Graph Transformer networks to verify that the models which capture long-range dependencies perform significantly better on these tasks. Therefore, these datasets are suitable for benchmarking and exploration of MP-GNNs and Graph Transformer architectures that are intended to capture LRI. 
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  5. In modern relational machine learning it is common to encounter large graphs that arise via interactions or similarities between observations in many domains. Further, in many cases the target entities for analysis are actually signals on such graphs. We propose to compare and organize such datasets of graph signals by using an earth mover’s distance (EMD) with a geodesic cost over the underlying graph. Typically, EMD is computed by optimizing over the cost of transporting one probability distribution to another over an underlying metric space. However, this is inefficient when computing the EMD between many signals. Here, we propose an unbalanced graph EMD that efficiently embeds the unbalanced EMD on an underlying graph into an L1 space, whose metric we call unbalanced diffusion earth mover’s distance (UDEMD). Next, we show how this gives distances between graph signals that are robust to noise. Finally, we apply this to organizing patients based on clinical notes, embedding cells modeled as signals on a gene graph, and organizing genes modeled as signals over a large cell graph. In each case, we show that UDEMD-based embeddings find accurate distances that are highly efficient compared to other methods. 
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  6. We propose a method called integrated diffusion for combining multimodal data, gathered via different sensors on the same system, to create a integrated data diffusion operator. As real world data suffers from both local and global noise, we introduce mechanisms to optimally calculate a diffusion operator that reflects the combined information in data by maintaining low frequency eigenvectors of each modality both globally and locally. We show the utility of this integrated operator in denoising and visualizing multimodal toy data as well as multi-omic data generated from blood cells, measuring both gene expression and chromatin accessibility. Our approach better visualizes the geometry of the integrated data and captures known cross-modality associations. More generally, integrated diffusion is broadly applicable to multimodal datasets generated by noisy sensors collected in a variety of fields. 
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  7. We propose a new graph neural network (GNN) module, based on relaxations of recently proposed geometric scattering transforms, which consist of a cascade of graph wavelet filters. Our learnable geometric scattering (LEGS) module enables adaptive tuning of the wavelets to encourage band-pass features to emerge in learned representations. The incorporation of our LEGS-module in GNNs enables the learning of longer-range graph relations compared to many popular GNNs, which often rely on encoding graph structure via smoothness or similarity between neighbors. Further, its wavelet priors result in simplified architectures with significantly fewer learned parameters compared to competing GNNs. We demonstrate the predictive performance of LEGS-based networks on graph classification benchmarks, as well as the descriptive quality of their learned features in biochemical graph data exploration tasks. 
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  8. Lu, Jianfeng ; Ward, Rachel (Ed.)
    The Euclidean scattering transform was introduced nearly a decade ago to improve the mathematical understanding of convolutional neural networks. Inspired by recent interest in geometric deep learning, which aims to generalize convolutional neural networks to manifold and graph-structured domains, we define a geometric scattering transform on manifolds. Similar to the Euclidean scattering transform, the geometric scattering transform is based on a cascade of wavelet filters and pointwise nonlinearities. It is invariant to local isometries and stable to certain types of diffeomorphisms. Empirical results demonstrate its utility on several geometric learning tasks. Our results generalize the deformation stability and local translation invariance of Euclidean scattering, and demonstrate the importance of linking the used filter structures to the underlying geometry of the data. 
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  9. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are revolutionizing imaging science for two- and three-dimensional images over Euclidean domains. However, many data sets are intrinsically non-Euclidean and are better modeled through other mathematical structures, such as graphs or manifolds. This state of affairs has led to the development of geometric deep learning, which refers to a body of research that aims to translate the principles of CNNs to these non-Euclidean structures. In the process, various challenges have arisen, including how to define such geometric networks, how to compute and train them efficiently, and what are their mathematical properties. In this letter we describe the geometric wavelet scattering transform, which is a type of geometric CNN for graphs and manifolds consisting of alternating multiscale geometric wavelet transforms and nonlinear activation functions. As the name suggests, the geometric wavelet scattering transform is an adaptation of the Euclidean wavelet scattering transform, first introduced by S. Mallat, to graph and manifold data. Like its Euclidean counterpart, the geometric wavelet scattering transform has several desirable properties. In the manifold setting these properties include isometric invariance up to a user specified scale and stability to small diffeomorphisms. Numerical results on manifold and graph data sets, including graph and manifold classification tasks as well as others, illustrate the practical utility of the approach. 
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