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  1. Abstract

    We present the main results from a long-term reverberation mapping campaign carried out for the Seoul National University AGN Monitoring Project (SAMP). High-quality data were obtained during 2015–2021 for 32 luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs; i.e., continuum luminosity in the range of 1044–46erg s−1) at a regular cadence, of 20–30 days for spectroscopy and 3–5 days for photometry. We obtain time lag measurements between the variability in the Hβemission and the continuum for 32 AGNs; 25 of those have the best lag measurements based on our quality assessment, examining correlation strength and the posterior lag distribution. Our study significantly increases the current sample of reverberation-mapped AGNs, particularly at the moderate-to-high-luminosity end. Combining our results with literature measurements, we derive an Hβbroadline region size–luminosity relation with a shallower slope than reported in the literature. For a given luminosity, most of our measured lags are shorter than the expectations, implying that single-epoch black hole mass estimators based on previous calibrations could suffer large systematic uncertainties.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  2. ABSTRACT

    To understand the mass distribution and co-evolution of supermassive black holes with their host galaxy, it is crucial to measure the black hole mass of AGN. Reverberation mapping is a unique tool to estimate the black hole masses in AGN. We performed spectroscopic reverberation study using long-term monitoring data with more than 100 spectra of a radio-loud quasar PKS 0736 + 017 to estimate the size of the broad-line region (BLR) and black hole mass. The optical spectrum shows strong H β and H γ emission lines. We generated the light curves of 5100 Å continuum flux (f5100), H β, and H γ. All the light curves are found to be strongly variable with fractional variability of 69 per cent, 21 per cent, 30 per cent for V-band, H β, and H γ light curves, respectively. Along with the thermal contribution, non-thermal emission contributes to the estimated continuum luminosity at 5100 Å. Using different methods, e.g. CCF, JAVELIN, von-neumann, we estimated the size of the BLR, which is found to be 66.4$^{+6.0}_{-4.2}$ light days in the rest frame. The BLR size combined with the line width of H β provides a black hole mass of 7.32$^{+0.89}_{-0.91} \times 10^{7}M_{\odot }$. The source closely follows the BLR size–luminosity relation of AGN.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT

    We present new imaging of a sub-kpc-scale binary active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidate from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (e-MERLIN). Two unresolved radio sources of similar luminosity around 1022 WHz−1 are identified in ∼35 h of e-MERLIN 6 cm imaging. These radio sources have an angular separation of 0.19 ± 0.06 arcsec and position angle (PA) of 22° ± 10°, corresponding to a projected separation of 0.95 ± 0.29 kpc at the epoch of the source. Our results suggest the presence of a kpc-scale active black hole pair hosted by two galaxies in the late stage of a merger at z  = 0.35. This work follows Woo et al., which presented two optical sources with a similar separation and PA, and a velocity separation of 200 km s−1. Our target adds to the currently limited sample of close-separation binary AGNs, which will aid in understanding the frequency of mergers and the stochastic gravitational wave background.

     
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  4. Abstract

    The broad-line region (BLR) size–luminosity relation has paramount importance for estimating the mass of black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Traditionally, the size of the HβBLR is often estimated from the optical continuum luminosity at 5100 Å, while the size of the HαBLR and its correlation with the luminosity is much less constrained. As a part of the Seoul National University AGN Monitoring Project, which provides 6 yr photometric and spectroscopic monitoring data, we present our measurements of the Hαlags of high-luminosity AGNs. Combined with the measurements for 42 AGNs from the literature, we derive the size–luminosity relations of the HαBLR against the broad Hαand 5100 Å continuum luminosities. We find the slope of the relations to be 0.61 ± 0.04 and 0.59 ± 0.04, respectively, which are consistent with the Hβsize–luminosity relation. Moreover, we find a linear relation between the 5100 Å continuum luminosity and the broad Hαluminosity across 7 orders of magnitude. Using these results, we propose a new virial mass estimator based on the Hαbroad emission line, finding that the previous mass estimates based on scaling relations in the literature are overestimated by up to 0.7 dex at masses lower than 107M.

     
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  5. Abstract

    We combine our dynamical modeling black-hole mass measurements from the Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2016 sample with measured cross-correlation time lags and line widths to recover individual scale factors,f, used in traditional reverberation-mapping analyses. We extend our sample by including prior results from Code for AGN Reverberation and Modeling of Emission Lines (caramel) studies that have utilized our methods. Aiming to improve the precision of black-hole mass estimates, as well as uncover any regularities in the behavior of the broad-line region (BLR), we search for correlations betweenfand other AGN/BLR parameters. We find (i) evidence for a correlation between the virial coefficientlog10(fmean,σ)and black-hole mass, (ii) marginal evidence for a similar correlation betweenlog10(frms,σ)and black-hole mass, (iii) marginal evidence for an anticorrelation of BLR disk thickness withlog10(fmean,FWHM)andlog10(frms,FWHM), and (iv) marginal evidence for an anticorrelation of inclination angle withlog10(fmean,FWHM),log10(frms,σ), andlog10(fmean,σ). Last, we find marginal evidence for a correlation between line-profile shape, when using the root-mean-square spectrum,log10(FWHM/σ)rms, and the virial coefficient,log10(frms,σ), and investigate how BLR properties might be related to line-profile shape usingcaramelmodels.

     
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  6. Abstract

    We have modeled the velocity-resolved reverberation response of the Hβbroad emission line in nine Seyfert 1 galaxies from the Lick Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) Monitoring Project 2016 sample, drawing inferences on the geometry and structure of the low-ionization broad-line region (BLR) and the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Overall, we find that the HβBLR is generally a thick disk viewed at low to moderate inclination angles. We combine our sample with prior studies and investigate line-profile shape dependence, such aslog10(FWHM/σ), on BLR structure and kinematics and search for any BLR luminosity-dependent trends. We find marginal evidence for an anticorrelation between the profile shape of the broad Hβemission line and the Eddington ratio, when using the rms spectrum. However, we do not find any luminosity-dependent trends, and conclude that AGNs have diverse BLR structure and kinematics, consistent with the hypothesis of transient AGN/BLR conditions rather than systematic trends.

     
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  7. Abstract

    We carried out spectroscopic monitoring of 21 low-redshift Seyfert 1 galaxies using the Kast double spectrograph on the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory from 2016 April to 2017 May. Targeting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with luminosities ofλLλ(5100 Å) ≈ 1044erg s−1and predicted Hβlags of ∼20–30 days or black hole masses of 107–108.5M, our campaign probes luminosity-dependent trends in broad-line region (BLR) structure and dynamics as well as to improve calibrations for single-epoch estimates of quasar black hole masses. Here we present the first results from the campaign, including Hβemission-line light curves, integrated Hβlag times (8–30 days) measured againstV-band continuum light curves, velocity-resolved reverberation lags, line widths of the broad Hβcomponents, and virial black hole mass estimates (107.1–108.1M). Our results add significantly to the number of existing velocity-resolved lag measurements and reveal a diversity of BLR gas kinematics at moderately high AGN luminosities. AGN continuum luminosity appears not to be correlated with the type of kinematics that its BLR gas may exhibit. Follow-up direct modeling of this data set will elucidate the detailed kinematics and provide robust dynamical black hole masses for several objects in this sample.

     
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