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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  2. Economic dispatch in a multi-microgrid (MMG) system involves an increasing number of states from distributed energy resources (DERs) compared to a single microgrid. In these cases, traditional reinforcement learning (RL) approaches may become computationally expensive or less effective in finding the least-cost solution. This paper presents a novel RL approach that employs local learning agents to interact with individual microgrid environments in a distributed manner and a global agent to search for actions to minimize system cost at the MMG system level. The proposed distributed RL framework is more efficient in learning the dispatch policy compared to conventional approaches. Case studies are performed on a 3-microgrid system with different types of DERs. Results substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in comparison with conventional methods in terms of operation costs, computation time, and peak-to-average ratio.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 30, 2023
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  6. The growing penetration of renewable resources such as wind and solar into the electric power grid through power electronic inverters is challenging grid protection. Due to the advanced inverter control algorithms, the inverter-based resources present fault responses different from conventional generators, which can fundamentally affect the way that the power grid is protected. This paper studied solar inverter dynamics focused on negative-sequence quantities during the restoration period following a grid disturbance by using a real-time digital simulator. It was found that solar inverters can act as negative-sequence sources to inject negative-sequence currents into the grid during the restoration period. The negative-sequence current can be affected by different operating conditions such as the number of inverters in service, grid strength, and grid fault types. Such negative-sequence responses can adversely impact the performance of protection schemes based on negative-sequence components and potentially cause relay maloperations during the grid restoration period, thus making system protection less secure and reliable.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
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