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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 31, 2024
  4. Abstract Background

    Suboptimal maternal oral health during pregnancy is potentially associated with adverse birth outcomes and increased dental caries risks in children. This study aimed to assess the oral microbiome and immune response following an innovative clinical regimen, Prenatal Total Oral Rehabilitation (PTOR), that fully restores women’s oral health to a “disease-free status” before delivery.

    Methods

    This prospective cohort study assessed 15 pregnant women at baseline and 3 follow-up visits (1 week, 2 weeks, and 2 months) after receiving PTOR. The salivary and supragingival plaque microbiomes were analyzed using metagenomic sequencing. Multiplexed Luminex cytokine assays were performed to examine immune response following PTOR. The association between salivary immune markers and oral microbiome was further examined.

    Results

    PTOR was associated with a reduction of periodontal pathogens in plaque, for instance, a lower relative abundance ofTannerella forsythiaandTreponema denticolaat 2 weeks compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). The alpha diversity of plaque microbial community was significantly reduced at the 1-week follow-up (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we observed significant changes in theActinomyces defective-associated carbohydrate degradation pathway andStreptococcus Gordonii-associated fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Two immune markers related to adverse birth outcomes significantly differed between baseline and follow-up. ITAC, negatively correlated with preeclampsia severity, significantly increased at 1-week follow-up; MCP-1, positively correlated with gestational age, was elevated at 1-week follow-up. Association modeling between immune markers and microbiome further revealed specific oral microorganisms that are potentially correlated with the host immune response.

    Conclusions

    PTOR is associated with alteration of the oral microbiome and immune response among a cohort of underserved US pregnant women. Future randomized clinical trials are warranted to comprehensively assess the impact of PTOR on maternal oral flora, birth outcomes, and their offspring’s oral health.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of Nystatin oral rinse on salivary and supragingival microbiota in adults with oral candidiasis and identify predictive factors related to individuals’ responses to Nystatin. The trial involved twenty participants who used 600,000 International Units/application of Nystatin oral rinse for seven days, four times a day, and were followed up at one week and three months after the rinse. The salivary and plaque microbiome of the participants were assessed via 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Overall, salivary and plaque microbiomes remained stable. However, among the participants (53 percent) who responded to Nystatin rinse (defined as free of oral Candida albicans post treatment), Veillonella emerged as a core genus alongside Streptococcus and Actinomyces in supragingival plaque at the 3-month follow-up. Furthermore, statistical models were fit to identify predictive factors of Nystatin rinse success (elimination of C. albicans) or failure (remaining C. albicans). The results revealed that an increased level of salivary Interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible protein (IP-10), also known as C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), was an indicator of a failure of responding to Nystatin rinse. Future clinical trials are warranted to comprehensively assess the impact of antifungal treatment on the oral flora.

     
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  6. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a disease that globally affects pre-school children. It is important to identify both protective and risk factors associated with this disease. This paper examined a set of saliva samples of Thai mother–child dyads and aimed to analyze how the maternal factors and oral microbiome of the dyads influence the development of ECC. However, heterogeneous latent subpopulations may exist that have different characteristics in terms of caries development. Therefore, we introduce a novel method to cluster the correlated outcomes of dependent observations while selecting influential independent variables to unearth latent groupings within this dataset and reveal their association in each group. This paper describes the discovery of three heterogeneous clusters in the dataset, each with its own unique mother–child outcome trend, as well as identifying several microbial factors that contribute to ECC. Significantly, the three identified clusters represent three typical clinical conditions in which mother–child dyads have typical (cluster 1), high–low (cluster 2), and low–high caries experiences (cluster 3) compared to the overall trend of mother–child caries status. Intriguingly, the variables identified as the driving attributes of each cluster, including specific taxa, have the potential to be used in the future as caries preventive measures.

     
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