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  1. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is a dimeric, mucin-like, 120-kDa glycoprotein that binds to P-, E-, and L-selectins. PSGL-1 is expressed primarily on the surface of lymphoid and myeloid cells and is up-regulated during inflammation to mediate leukocyte tethering and rolling on the surface of endothelium for migration into inflamed tissues. Although it has been reported that PSGL-1 expression inhibits HIV-1 replication, the mechanism of PSGL-1–mediated anti-HIV activity remains to be elucidated. Here we report that PSGL-1 in virions blocks the infectivity of HIV-1 particles by preventing the binding of particles to target cells. This inhibitory activity is independent of the viral glycoprotein present on the virus particle; the binding of particles bearing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein or vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein or even lacking a viral glycoprotein is impaired by PSGL-1. Mapping studies show that the extracellular N-terminal domain of PSGL-1 is necessary for its anti–HIV-1 activity, and that the PSGL-1 cytoplasmic tail contributes to inhibition. In addition, we demonstrate that the PSGL-1–related monomeric E-selectin–binding glycoprotein CD43 also effectively blocks HIV-1 infectivity. HIV-1 infection, or expression of either Vpu or Nef, down-regulates PSGL-1 from the cell surface; expression of Vpu appears to be primarily responsible for enabling the virusmore »to partially escape PSGL-1–mediated restriction. Finally, we show that PSGL-1 inhibits the infectivity of other viruses, such as murine leukemia virus and influenza A virus. These findings demonstrate that PSGL-1 is a broad-spectrum antiviral host factor with a unique mechanism of action.« less