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Creators/Authors contains: "Xia, Junfei"

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  1. Abstract The proliferation of Internet-of-Things has promoted a wide variety of emerging applications that require compact, lightweight, and low-cost optical spectrometers. While substantial progresses have been made in the miniaturization of spectrometers, most of them are with a major focus on the technical side but tend to feature a lower technology readiness level for manufacturability. More importantly, in spite of the advancement in miniaturized spectrometers, their performance and the metrics of real-life applications have seldomly been connected but are highly important. This review paper shows the market trend for chip-scale spectrometers and analyzes the key metrics that are required to adopt miniaturized spectrometers in real-life applications. Recent progress addressing the challenges of miniaturization of spectrometers is summarized, paying a special attention to the CMOS-compatible fabrication platform that shows a clear pathway to massive production. Insights for ways forward are also presented.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. The ability to monitor the release of neurotransmitters during synaptic transmission would significantly impact the diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases. Here, we present a DNA-based enzymatic nanosensor for quantitative detection of acetylcholine (ACh) in the peripheral nervous system of living mice. ACh nanosensors consist of DNA as a scaffold, acetylcholinesterase as a recognition component, pH-sensitive fluorophores as signal generators, and α-bungarotoxin as a targeting moiety. We demonstrate the utility of the nanosensors in the submandibular ganglia of living mice to sensitively detect ACh ranging from 0.228 to 358 μM. In addition, the sensor response upon electrical stimulation of the efferent nerve is dose dependent, reversible, and we observe a reduction of ∼76% in sensor signal upon pharmacological inhibition of ACh release. Equipped with an advanced imaging processing tool, we further spatially resolve ACh signal propagation on the tissue level. Our platform enables sensitive measurement and mapping of ACh transmission in the peripheral nervous system.