skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Xiao, Xiao"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    The interactions between charges and excitons involve complex many-body interactions at high densities. The exciton-polaron model has been adopted to understand the Fermi sea screening of charged excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides. The results provide good agreement with absorption measurements, which are dominated by dilute bright exciton responses. Here we investigate the Fermi sea dressing of spin-forbidden dark excitons in monolayer WSe2. With a Zeeman field, the valley-polarized dark excitons show distinct p-doping dependence in photoluminescence when the carriers reach a critical density. This density can be interpreted as the onset of strongly modified Fermi sea interactions and shifts with increasing exciton density. Through valley-selective excitation and dynamics measurements, we also infer an intervalley coupling between the dark trions and exciton-polarons mediated by the many-body interactions. Our results reveal the evolution of Fermi sea screening with increasing exciton density and the impacts of polaron-polaron interactions, which lay the foundation for understanding electronic correlations and many-body interactions in 2D systems.

    more » « less
  2. Dipyridyl molecular junctions often show intriguing conductance switching behaviors with mechanical modulations, but the mechanisms are still not completely revealed. By applying the ab initio -based adiabatic simulation method, the configuration evolution and electron transport properties of dipyridyl molecular junctions in stretching and compressing processes are systematically investigated. The numerical results reveal that the dipyridyl molecular junctions tend to form specific contact configurations during formation processes. In small electrode gaps, the pyridyls almost vertically adsorb on the second Au layers of the tip electrodes by pushing the top Au atoms aside. These specific contact configurations result in stronger molecule–electrode couplings and larger electronic incident cross-sectional areas, which consequently lead to large breaking forces and high conductance. On further elongating the molecular junctions, the pyridyls shift to the top Au atoms of the tip electrodes. The additional scattering of the top Au atoms dramatically decreases the conductance and switches the molecular junctions to the lower conductive states. Perfect cyclical conductance switches are obtained as observed in the experiments by repeatedly stretching and compressing the molecular junctions. The O atom in the side-group tends to hinder the pyridyl from adsorbing on the second Au layer and further inhibits the conductance switch of the dipyridyl molecular junction. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 3, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Transdermal drug delivery provides convenient and pain-free self-administration for personalized therapy. However, challenges remain in treating acute diseases mainly due to their inability to timely administrate therapeutics and precisely regulate pharmacokinetics within a short time window. Here we report the development of active acoustic metamaterials-driven transdermal drug delivery for rapid and on-demand acute disease management. Through the integration of active acoustic metamaterials, a compact therapeutic patch is integrated for penetration of skin stratum corneum and active percutaneous transport of therapeutics with precise control of dose and rate over time. Moreover, the patch device quantitatively regulates the dosage and release kinetics of therapeutics and achieves better delivery performance in vivo than through subcutaneous injection. As a proof-of-concept application, we show our method can reverse life-threatening acute allergic reactions in a female mouse model of anaphylaxis via a multi-burst delivery of epinephrine, showing better efficacy than a fixed dosage injection of epinephrine, which is the current gold standard ‘self-injectable epinephrine’ strategy. This innovative method may provide a promising means to manage acute disease for personalized medicine.

    more » « less
  4. Cann, Isaac (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Arsenic (As) metabolism genes are generally present in soils, but their diversity, relative abundance, and transcriptional activity in response to different As concentrations remain unclear, limiting our understanding of the microbial activities that control the fate of an important environmental pollutant. To address this issue, we applied metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to paddy soils showing a gradient of As concentrations to investigate As resistance genes ( ars ) including arsR , acr3 , arsB , arsC , arsM , arsI , arsP , and arsH as well as energy-generating As respiratory oxidation ( aioA ) and reduction ( arrA ) genes. Somewhat unexpectedly, the relative DNA abundances and diversities of ars , aioA , and arrA genes were not significantly different between low and high (∼10 versus ∼100 mg kg −1 ) As soils. Compared to available metagenomes from other soils, geographic distance rather than As levels drove the different compositions of microbial communities. Arsenic significantly increased ars gene abundance only when its concentration was higher than 410 mg kg −1 . In contrast, metatranscriptomics revealed that relative to low-As soils, high-As soils showed a significant increase in transcription of ars and aioA genes, which are induced by arsenite, the dominant As species in paddy soils, but not arrA genes, which are induced by arsenate. These patterns appeared to be community wide as opposed to taxon specific. Collectively, our findings advance understanding of how microbes respond to high As levels and the diversity of As metabolism genes in paddy soils and indicated that future studies of As metabolism in soil or other environments should include the function (transcriptome) level. IMPORTANCE Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid pervasively present in the environment. Microorganisms have evolved the capacity to metabolize As, and As metabolism genes are ubiquitously present in the environment even in the absence of high concentrations of As. However, these previous studies were carried out at the DNA level; thus, the activity of the As metabolism genes detected remains essentially speculative. Here, we show that the high As levels in paddy soils increased the transcriptional activity rather than the relative DNA abundance and diversity of As metabolism genes. These findings advance our understanding of how microbes respond to and cope with high As levels and have implications for better monitoring and managing an important toxic metalloid in agricultural soils and possibly other ecosystems. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
  6. null (Ed.)