Exciton polaron is a hypothetical many-body quasiparticle that involves an exciton dressed with a polarized electron-hole cloud in the Fermi sea. It has been evoked to explain the excitonic spectra of charged monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, but the studies were limited to the ground state. Here we measure the reflection and photoluminescence of monolayer MoSe2and WSe2gating devices encapsulated by boron nitride. We observe gate-tunable exciton polarons associated with the 1 s–3 s exciton Rydberg states. The ground and excited exciton polarons exhibit comparable energy redshift (15~30 meV) from their respective bare excitons. The robust excited states contradict the trion picture because the trions are expected to dissociate in the excited states. When the Fermi sea expands, we observe increasingly severe suppression and steep energy shift from low to high exciton-polaron Rydberg states. Their gate-dependent energy shifts go beyond the trion description but match our exciton-polaron theory. Our experiment and theory demonstrate the exciton-polaron nature of both the ground and excited excitonic states in charged monolayer MoSe2and WSe2.
The interactions between charges and excitons involve complex many-body interactions at high densities. The exciton-polaron model has been adopted to understand the Fermi sea screening of charged excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides. The results provide good agreement with absorption measurements, which are dominated by dilute bright exciton responses. Here we investigate the Fermi sea dressing of spin-forbidden dark excitons in monolayer WSe2. With a Zeeman field, the valley-polarized dark excitons show distinct p-doping dependence in photoluminescence when the carriers reach a critical density. This density can be interpreted as the onset of strongly modified Fermi sea interactions and shifts with increasing exciton density. Through valley-selective excitation and dynamics measurements, we also infer an intervalley coupling between the dark trions and exciton-polarons mediated by the many-body interactions. Our results reveal the evolution of Fermi sea screening with increasing exciton density and the impacts of polaron-polaron interactions, which lay the foundation for understanding electronic correlations and many-body interactions in 2D systems.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Nature Publishing Group
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Nature Communications
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Strong many-body interaction in two-dimensional transitional metal dichalcogenides provides a unique platform to study the interplay between different quasiparticles, such as prominent phonon replica emission and modified valley-selection rules. A large out-of-plane magnetic field is expected to modify the exciton-phonon interactions by quantizing excitons into discrete Landau levels, which is largely unexplored. Here, we observe the Landau levels originating from phonon-exciton complexes and directly probe exciton-phonon interaction under a quantizing magnetic field. Phonon-exciton interaction lifts the inter-Landau-level transition selection rules for dark trions, manifested by a distinctively different Landau fan pattern compared to bright trions. This allows us to experimentally extract the effective mass of both holes and electrons. The onset of Landau quantization coincides with a significant increase of the valley-Zeeman shift, suggesting strong many-body effects on the phonon-exciton interaction. Our work demonstrates monolayer WSe2as an intriguing playground to study phonon-exciton interactions and their interplay with charge, spin, and valley.
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null (Ed.)The electronic exciton polaron is a hypothetical many-body quasiparticle formed by an exciton dressed with a polarized electron-hole cloud in the Fermi sea (FS). It is predicted to display rich many-body physics and unusual roton-like dispersion. Exciton polarons were recently evoked to explain the excitonic spectra of doped monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), but these studies are limited to the ground state. Excited-state exciton polarons can exhibit richer many-body physics due to their larger spatial extent, but detection is challenging due to their inherently weak signals. Here we observe gate-tunable exciton polarons for the 1s - 3s excitonic Rydberg series in ultraclean monolayer MoSe2 devices by optical spectroscopy. When the FS expands, we observe increasingly severe suppression and steep energy shift from low to high Rydberg states. Their gate-dependent energy shifts go beyond the trion description but match our exciton-polaron theory. Notably, the exciton-polaron absorption and emission bands are separated with an energy gap, which increases from ground to excited state. Such peculiar characteristics are attributed to the roton-like exciton-polaron dispersion, where energy minima occur at finite momenta. The roton effect increases from ground to excited state. Such exciton-polaron Rydberg series with progressively significant many-body and roton effect shall provide a new platform to explore complex many-body phenomena.more » « less
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