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  1. Event detection in power systems aims to identify triggers and event types, which helps relevant personnel respond to emergencies promptly and facilitates the optimization of power supply strategies. However, the limited length of short electrical record texts causes severe information sparsity, and numerous domain-specific terminologies of power systems makes it difficult to transfer knowledge from language models pre-trained on general-domain texts. Traditional event detection approaches primarily focus on the general domain and ignore these two problems in the power system domain. To address the above issues, we propose a Multi-Channel graph neural network utilizing Type information for Event Detection in power systems, named MC-TED , leveraging a semantic channel and a topological channel to enrich information interaction from short texts. Concretely, the semantic channel refines textual representations with semantic similarity, building the semantic information interaction among potential event-related words. The topological channel generates a relation-type-aware graph modeling word dependencies, and a word-type-aware graph integrating part-of-speech tags. To further reduce errors worsened by professional terminologies in type analysis, a type learning mechanism is designed for updating the representations of both the word type and relation type in the topological channel. In this way, the information sparsity and professional term occurrence problems can be alleviated by enabling interaction between topological and semantic information. Furthermore, to address the lack of labeled data in power systems, we built a Chinese event detection dataset based on electrical Power Event texts, named PoE . In experiments, our model achieves compelling results not only on the PoE dataset, but on general-domain event detection datasets including ACE 2005 and MAVEN. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 31, 2024
  2. Collecting large-scale medical datasets with fully annotated samples for training of deep networks is prohibitively expensive, especially for 3D volume data. Recent breakthroughs in self-supervised learning (SSL) offer the ability to overcome the lack of labeled training samples by learning feature representations from unlabeled data. However, most current SSL techniques in the medical field have been designed for either 2D images or 3D volumes. In practice, this restricts the capability to fully leverage unlabeled data from numerous sources, which may include both 2D and 3D data. Additionally, the use of these pre-trained networks is constrained to downstream tasks with compatible data dimensions.In this paper, we propose a novel framework for unsupervised joint learning on 2D and 3D data modalities. Given a set of 2D images or 2D slices extracted from 3D volumes, we construct an SSL task based on a 2D contrastive clustering problem for distinct classes. The 3D volumes are exploited by computing vectored embedding at each slice and then assembling a holistic feature through deformable self-attention mechanisms in Transformer, allowing incorporating long-range dependencies between slices inside 3D volumes. These holistic features are further utilized to define a novel 3D clustering agreement-based SSL task and masking embedding prediction inspired by pre-trained language models. Experiments on downstream tasks, such as 3D brain segmentation, lung nodule detection, 3D heart structures segmentation, and abnormal chest X-ray detection, demonstrate the effectiveness of our joint 2D and 3D SSL approach. We improve plain 2D Deep-ClusterV2 and SwAV by a significant margin and also surpass various modern 2D and 3D SSL approaches. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 27, 2024
  3. Abstract Brain tumor is a life-threatening disease and causes about 0.25 million deaths worldwide in 2020. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is frequently used for diagnosing brain tumors. In medically underdeveloped regions, physicians who can accurately diagnose and assess the severity of brain tumors from MRI are highly lacking. Deep learning methods have been developed to assist physicians in detecting brain tumors from MRI and determining their subtypes. In existing methods, neural architectures are manually designed by human experts, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. To address this problem, we propose to automatically search for high-performance neural architectures for classifying brain tumors from MRIs, by leveraging a Learning-by-Self-Explanation (LeaSE) architecture search method. LeaSE consists of an explainer model and an audience model. The explainer aims at searching for a highly performant architecture by encouraging the architecture to generate high-fidelity explanations of prediction outcomes, where explanations’ fidelity is evaluated by the audience model. LeaSE is formulated as a four-level optimization problem involving a sequence of four learning stages which are conducted end-to-end. We apply LeaSE for MRI-based brain tumor classification, including four classes: glioma, meningioma, pituitary tumor, and healthy, on a dataset containing 3264 MRI images. Results show that our method can search for neural architectures that achieve better classification accuracy than manually designed deep neural networks while having fewer model parameters. For example, our method achieves a test accuracy of 90.6% and an AUC of 95.6% with 3.75M parameters while the accuracy and AUC of a human-designed network—ResNet101—is 84.5% and 90.1% respectively with 42.56M parameters. In addition, our method outperforms state-of-the-art neural architecture search methods. 
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  4. Learning from one's mistakes is an effective human learning technique where the learners focus more on the topics where mistakes were made, so as to deepen their understanding. In this paper, we investigate if this human learning strategy can be applied in machine learning. We propose a novel machine learning method called Learning From Mistakes (LFM), wherein the learner improves its ability to learn by focusing more on the mistakes during revision. We formulate LFM as a three-stage optimization problem: 1) learner learns; 2) learner re-learns focusing on the mistakes, and; 3) learner validates its learning. We develop an efficient algorithm to solve the LFM problem. We apply the LFM framework to neural architecture search on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and Imagenet. Experimental results strongly demonstrate the effectiveness of our model. 
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  5. Abstract Text augmentation is an effective technique in alleviating overfitting in NLP tasks. In existing methods, text augmentation and downstream tasks are mostly performed separately. As a result, the augmented texts may not be optimal to train the downstream model. To address this problem, we propose a three-level optimization framework to perform text augmentation and the downstream task end-to- end. The augmentation model is trained in a way tailored to the downstream task. Our framework consists of three learning stages. A text summarization model is trained to perform data augmentation at the first stage. Each summarization example is associated with a weight to account for its domain difference with the text classification data. At the second stage, we use the model trained at the first stage to perform text augmentation and train a text classification model on the augmented texts. At the third stage, we evaluate the text classification model trained at the second stage and update weights of summarization examples by minimizing the validation loss. These three stages are performed end-to-end. We evaluate our method on several text classification datasets where the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. Code is available at https://github.com/Sai-Ashish/End-to-End-Text-Augmentation. 
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  6. Abstract Text classification is a widely studied problem and has broad applications. In many real-world problems, the number of texts for training classification models is limited, which renders these models prone to overfitting. To address this problem, we propose SSL-Reg, a data-dependent regularization approach based on self-supervised learning (SSL). SSL (Devlin et al., 2019a) is an unsupervised learning approach that defines auxiliary tasks on input data without using any human-provided labels and learns data representations by solving these auxiliary tasks. In SSL-Reg, a supervised classification task and an unsupervised SSL task are performed simultaneously. The SSL task is unsupervised, which is defined purely on input texts without using any human- provided labels. Training a model using an SSL task can prevent the model from being overfitted to a limited number of class labels in the classification task. Experiments on 17 text classification datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. Code is available at https://github.com/UCSD-AI4H/SSReg. 
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