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  1. Switching of perpendicular magnetization via spin–orbit torque (SOT) is of particular interest in the development of non-volatile magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. We studied current-induced magnetization switching of Ir/GdFeCo/Cu/Pt heterostructures in a Hall cross geometry as a function of the in-plane applied magnetic field. Remarkably, magnetization switching is observed at zero applied field. This is shown to result from the competition between SOT, the Oersted field generated by the charge current, and the material's coercivity. Our results show a means of achieving zero-field switching that can impact the design of future spintronics devices, such as SOT-MRAM.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 28, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 30, 2023
  3. Fuzz testing, or fuzzing, has become one of the de facto standard techniques for bug finding in the software industry. In general, fuzzing provides various inputs to the target program with the goal of discovering unhandled exceptions and crashes. In business sectors where the time budget is limited, software vendors often launch many fuzzing instances in parallel as a common means of increasing code coverage. However, most of the popular fuzzing tools — in their parallel mode — naively run multiple instances concurrently, without elaborate distribution of workload. This can lead different instances to explore overlapped code regions, eventually reducing the benefits of concurrency. In this paper, we propose a general model to describe parallel fuzzing. This model distributes mutually-exclusive but similarly-weighted tasks to different instances, facilitating concurrency and also fairness across instances. Following this model, we develop a solution, called AFL-EDGE, to improve the parallel mode of AFL, considering a round of mutations to a unique seed as a task and adopting edge coverage to define the uniqueness of a seed. We have implemented AFL-EDGE on top of AFL and evaluated the implementation with AFL on 9 widely used benchmark programs. It shows that AFL-EDGE can benefit the edgemore »coverage of AFL. In a 24-hour test, the increase of edge coverage brought by AFL-EDGE to AFL ranges from 9.5% to 10.2%, depending on the number of instances. As a side benefit, we discovered 14 previously unknown bugs.« less
  4. Abstract

    Transcription-coupled repair is essential for the removal of DNA lesions from the transcribed genome. The pathway is initiated by CSB protein binding to stalled RNA polymerase II. Mutations impairing CSB function cause severe genetic disease. Yet, the ATP-dependent mechanism by which CSB powers RNA polymerase to bypass certain lesions while triggering excision of others is incompletely understood. Here we build structural models of RNA polymerase II bound to the yeast CSB ortholog Rad26 in nucleotide-free and bound states. This enables simulations and graph-theoretical analyses to define partitioning of this complex into dynamic communities and delineate how its structural elements function together to remodel DNA. We identify an allosteric pathway coupling motions of the Rad26 ATPase modules to changes in RNA polymerase and DNA to unveil a structural mechanism for CSB-assisted progression past less bulky lesions. Our models allow functional interpretation of the effects of Cockayne syndrome disease mutations.

  5. In this work, we first propose a parallel batch switching algorithm called Small-Batch Queue-Proportional Sampling (SB-QPS). Compared to other batch switching algorithms, SB-QPS significantly reduces the batch size without sacrificing the throughput performance and hence has much lower delay when traffic load is light to moderate. It also achieves the lowest possible time complexity of O(1) per matching computation per port, via parallelization. We then propose another algorithm called Sliding-Window QPS (SW-QPS). SW-QPS retains and enhances all benefits of SB-QPS, and reduces the batching delay to zero via a novel switching framework called sliding-window switching. In addition, SW-QPS computes matchings of much higher qualities, as measured by the resulting throughput and delay performances, than QPS-1, the state-of-the-art regular switching algorithm that builds upon the same underlying bipartite matching algorithm.