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  1. Testing network protocol implementations is difficult mainly because of the temporal uncertain nature of network events. To evaluate the worst-case performance or detect the bugs of a network protocol implementation using network simulators, we need to systematically simulate the behavior of the network protocol under all possible cases of the temporal uncertain events, which is time consuming. The recently proposed Symbolic Execution based Interval Branching (SEIB) simulates a group of uncertain cases together in a single simulation branch and thus is more efficient than brute force testing. In this article, we argue that the efficiency of SEIB could be further significantly improved by eliminating unnecessary comparisons of the event timestamps. Specifically, we summarize and present three general types of unnecessary comparisons when SEIB is applied to a general network simulator, and then correspondingly propose three novel techniques to eliminate them. Our extensive simulations show that our techniques can improve the efficiency of SEIB by several orders of magnitude, such as from days to minutes.
  2. Smartphones have recently become a popular platform for deploying the computation-intensive virtual reality (VR) applications, such as immersive video streaming (a.k.a., 360-degree video streaming). One specific challenge involving the smartphone-based head mounted display (HMD) is to reduce the potentially huge power consumption caused by the immersive video. To address this challenge, we first conduct an empirical power measurement study on a typical smartphone immersive streaming system, which identifies the major power consumption sources. Then, we develop QuRate, a quality-aware and user-centric frame rate adaptation mechanism to tackle the power consumption issue in immersive video streaming. QuRate optimizes the immersive video power consumption by modeling the correlation between the perceivable video quality and the user behavior. Specifically, QuRate builds on top of the user’s reduced level of concentration on the video frames during view switching and dynamically adjusts the frame rate without impacting the perceivable video quality. We evaluate QuRate with a comprehensive set of experiments involving 5 smartphones, 21 users, and 6 immersive videos using empirical user head movement traces. Our experimental results demonstrate that QuRate is capable of extending the smartphone battery life by up to 1.24X while maintaining the perceivable video quality during immersive video streaming. Also, wemore »conduct an Institutional Review Board (IRB)- approved subjective user study to further validate the minimum video quality impact caused by QuRate.« less