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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 12, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Kafafi, Zakya (Ed.)
    Abstract In hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the reaction of hydrogens (H) located in the amino group of the organic A-site cations with their neighboring halides plays a central role in degradation. Inspired by the retarded biological activities of cells in heavy water, we replaced the light H atom with its abundant, twice-as-heavy, nonradioactive isotope, deuterium (D) to hamper the motion of H. This D substitution retarded the formation kinetics of the detrimental H halides in Pb-based PSCs, as well as the H bond-mediated oxidation of Sn2+ in Sn–Pb-based narrow-bandgap PSCs, evidenced by accelerated stability studies. A computational study indicated that the zero point energy of D-based formamidinium (FA) is lower than that of pristine FA. In addition, the smaller increase in entropy in D-based FA than in pristine FA accounts for the increased formation free energy of the Sn2+ vacancies, which leads to the retarded oxidation kinetics of Sn2+. In this study, we show that substituting active H with D in organic cations is an effective way to enhance the stability of PSCs without sacrificing photovoltaic (PV) performance. This approach is also adaptable to other stabilizing methods. 
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  4. Food waste and food safety motivate the need for improved food packaging solutions. However, current films/coatings addressing these issues are often limited by inefficient release dynamics that require large quantities of active ingredients. Here we developed antimicrobial pullulan fibre (APF)-based packaging that is biodegradable and capable of wrapping food substrates, increasing their longevity and enhancing their safety. APFs were spun using a high-throughput system, termed focused rotary jet spinning, with water as the only solvent, allowing the incorporation of naturally derived antimicrobial agents. Using avocados as a representative example, we demonstrate that APF-coated samples had their shelf life extended by inhibited proliferation of natural microflora, and lost less weight than uncoated control samples. This work offers a promising technique to produce scalable, low-cost and environmentally friendly biodegradable antimicrobial packaging systems. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
  6. null (Ed.)
    Differentiable Neural Architecture Search (DNAS) has demonstrated great success in designing state-of-the-art, efficient neural networks. However, DARTS-based DNAS's search space is small when compared to other search methods', since all candidate network layers must be explicitly instantiated in memory. To address this bottleneck, we propose a memory and computationally efficient DNAS variant: DMaskingNAS. This algorithm expands the search space by up to 10^14x over conventional DNAS, supporting searches over spatial and channel dimensions that are otherwise prohibitively expensive: input resolution and number of filters. We propose a masking mechanism for feature map reuse, so that memory and computational costs stay nearly constant as the search space expands. Furthermore, we employ effective shape propagation to maximize per-FLOP or per-parameter accuracy. The searched FBNetV2s yield state-of-the-art performance when compared with all previous architectures. With up to 421x less search cost, DMaskingNAS finds models with 0.9% higher accuracy, 15% fewer FLOPs than MobileNetV3-Small; and with similar accuracy but 20% fewer FLOPs than Efficient-B0. Furthermore, our FBNetV2 outperforms MobileNetV3 by 2.6% in accuracy, with equivalent model size. FBNetV2 models are open-sourced at https://github.com/facebookresearch/mobile-vision. 
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