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  1. Realization of ferromagnetic (FM) interlayer coupling in magnetic topological insulators (TIs) of the MnBi 2 Te 4 family of materials (MBTs) may pave the way for realizing the high-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect (high- T QAHE). Here we propose a generic dual d-band (DDB) model to elucidate the energy difference (Δ E = E AFM − E FM ) between the AFM and FM coupling in transition-metal (TM)-doped MBTs, where the valence of TMs splits into d-t 2g and d-e g sub-bands. Remarkably, the DDB shows that Δ E is universally determined by the relative position of the dopant (X) and Mn d-e g / t 2g bands, . If Δ E d > 0, then Δ E > 0 and the desired FM coupling is favored. This surprisingly simple rule is confirmed by first-principles calculations of hole-type 3d and 4d TM dopants. Significantly, by applying the DDB model, we predict the high- T QAHE in the V-doped Mn 2 Bi 2 Te 5 , where the Curie temperature is enhanced by doubling of the MnTe layer, while the topological order mitigated by doping can be restored by strain.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 29, 2023
  2. Abstract

    Overexpression of correctly folded membrane proteins is a fundamental prerequisite for functional and structural studies. One of the most commonly used expression systems for the production of membrane proteins isEscherichia coli. While misfolded proteins typically aggregate and form inclusions bodies, membrane proteins that are addressed to the membrane and extractable by detergents are generally assumed to be properly folded. Accordingly, GFP fusion strategy is often used as a fluorescent proxy to monitor their expression and folding quality. Here we investigated the functionality of two different multidrug ABC transporters, the homodimer BmrA fromBacillus subtilisand the heterodimer PatA/PatB fromStreptococcus pneumoniae, when produced in severalE. colistrains with T7 expression system. Strikingly, while strong expression in the membrane of several strains could be achieved, we observed drastic differences in the functionality of these proteins. Moreover, we observed a general trend in which mild detergents mainly extract the population of active transporters, whereas a harsher detergent like Fos-choline 12 could solubilize transporters irrespective of their functionality. Our results suggest that the amount of T7 RNA polymerase transcripts may indirectly but notably impact the structure and activity of overexpressed membrane proteins, and advise caution when using GFP fusion strategy.