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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. We consider a minimization problem whose objective function is the sum of a fidelity term, not necessarily convex, and a regularization term defined by a positive regularization parameter [Formula: see text] multiple of the [Formula: see text] norm composed with a linear transform. This problem has wide applications in compressed sensing, sparse machine learning and image reconstruction. The goal of this paper is to understand what choices of the regularization parameter can dictate the level of sparsity under the transform for a global minimizer of the resulting regularized objective function. This is a critical issue but it has been left unaddressed. We address it from a geometric viewpoint with which the sparsity partition of the image space of the transform is introduced. Choices of the regularization parameter are specified to ensure that a global minimizer of the corresponding regularized objective function achieves a prescribed level of sparsity under the transform. Results are obtained for the spacial sparsity case in which the transform is the identity map, a case that covers several applications of practical importance, including machine learning, image/signal processing and medical image reconstruction. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Accurate traffic speed prediction is critical to many applications, from routing and urban planning to infrastructure management. With sufficient training data where all spatio-temporal patterns are well- represented, machine learning models such as Spatial-Temporal Graph Convolutional Networks (STGCN), can make reasonably accurate predictions. However, existing methods fail when the training data distribution (e.g., traffic patterns on regular days) is different from test distribution (e.g., traffic patterns on special days). We address this challenge by proposing a traffic-law-informed network called Reaction-Diffusion Graph Ordinary Differential Equation (RDGODE) network, which incorporates a physical model of traffic speed evolution based on a reliable and interpretable reaction- diffusion equation that allows the RDGODE to adapt to unseen traffic patterns. We show that with mismatched training data, RDGODE is more robust than the state-of-the-art machine learning methods in the following cases. (1) When the test dataset exhibits spatio-temporal patterns not represented in the training dataset, the performance of RDGODE is more consistent and reliable. (2) When the test dataset has missing data, RDGODE can maintain its accuracy by intrinsically imputing the missing values. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 6, 2024
  4. Abstract We consider a regularization problem whose objective function consists of a convex fidelity term and a regularization term determined by the ℓ 1 norm composed with a linear transform. Empirical results show that the regularization with the ℓ 1 norm can promote sparsity of a regularized solution. The goal of this paper is to understand theoretically the effect of the regularization parameter on the sparsity of the regularized solutions. We establish a characterization of the sparsity under the transform matrix of the solution. When the objective function is block-separable or an error bound of the regularized solution to a known function is available, the resulting characterization can be taken as a regularization parameter choice strategy with which the regularization problem has a solution having a sparsity of a certain level. When the objective function is not block-separable, we propose an iterative algorithm which simultaneously determines the regularization parameter and its corresponding solution with a prescribed sparsity level. Moreover, we study choices of the regularization parameter so that the regularization term can alleviate the ill-posedness and promote sparsity of the resulting regularized solution. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient, and the choices of the regularization parameters can balance the sparsity of the regularized solution and its approximation to the minimizer of the fidelity function. 
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  5. Abstract

    We study the use of deep learning techniques to reconstruct the kinematics of the neutral current deep inelastic scattering (DIS) process in electron–proton collisions. In particular, we use simulated data from the ZEUS experiment at the HERA accelerator facility, and train deep neural networks to reconstruct the kinematic variables$$Q^2$$Q2andx. Our approach is based on the information used in the classical construction methods, the measurements of the scattered lepton, and the hadronic final state in the detector, but is enhanced through correlations and patterns revealed with the simulated data sets. We show that, with the appropriate selection of a training set, the neural networks sufficiently surpass all classical reconstruction methods on most of the kinematic range considered. Rapid access to large samples of simulated data and the ability of neural networks to effectively extract information from large data sets, both suggest that deep learning techniques to reconstruct DIS kinematics can serve as a rigorous method to combine and outperform the classical reconstruction methods.

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  6. Sample entropy, an approximation of the Kolmogorov entropy, was proposed to characterize complexity of a time series, which is essentially defined as −log(B/A), where B denotes the number of matched template pairs with length m and A denotes the number of matched template pairs with m+1, for a predetermined positive integer m. It has been widely used to analyze physiological signals. As computing sample entropy is time consuming, the box-assisted, bucket-assisted, x-sort, assisted sliding box, and kd-tree-based algorithms were proposed to accelerate its computation. These algorithms require O(N2) or O(N2−1m+1) computational complexity, where N is the length of the time series analyzed. When N is big, the computational costs of these algorithms are large. We propose a super fast algorithm to estimate sample entropy based on Monte Carlo, with computational costs independent of N (the length of the time series) and the estimation converging to the exact sample entropy as the number of repeating experiments becomes large. The convergence rate of the algorithm is also established. Numerical experiments are performed for electrocardiogram time series, electroencephalogram time series, cardiac inter-beat time series, mechanical vibration signals (MVS), meteorological data (MD), and 1/f noise. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can gain 100–1000 times speedup compared to the kd-tree and assisted sliding box algorithms while providing satisfactory approximate accuracy. 
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