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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a telescope array observing the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at frequency bands centered near 40, 90, 150, and 220 GHz. CLASS measures the CMB polarization on the largest angular scales to constrain the inflationary tensor-to-scalar ratio and the optical depth due to reionization. To achieve the long time-scale stability necessary for this measurement from the ground, CLASS utilizes a front-end, variable-delay polarization modulator on each telescope. Here we report on the improvements in stability afforded by front-end modulation using data across all four CLASS frequencies. Across one month of modulated linear polarization data in 2021, CLASS achieved median knee frequencies of 9.1, 29.1, 20.4, and 36.4 mHz for the 40, 90, 150, and 220 GHz observing bands. The knee frequencies are approximately an order of magnitude lower than achieved via CLASS pair-differencing orthogonal detector pairs without modulation. 
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  3. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
    Polarization modulation is a powerful technique to increase the stability of measurements by enabling the distinction of a polarized signal from dominant slow system drifts and unpolarized foregrounds. Furthermore, when placed as close to the sky as possible, modulation can reduce systematic errors from instrument polarization. In this work, we introduce the design and preliminary drive system laboratory performance of a new 60 cm diameter reflective half-wave plate (RHWP) polarization modulator. The wave plate consists of a wire array situated in front of a flat mirror. Using 50 μm diameter wires with 175 μm spacing, the wave plate will be suitable for operation in the millimeter wavelength range with flatness of the wires and parallelism to the mirror held to a small fraction of a wavelength. The presented design targets the 77-108 GHz range. Modulation is performed by a rotation of the wave plate with a custom rotary drive utilizing an actively controlled servo motor. 
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  4. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) telescope array surveys 75% of the sky from the Atacama desert in Chile at frequency bands centered near 40, 90, 150, and 220 GHz. CLASS measures the largest-angular scale (θ ≳ 1 ° ) CMB polarization with the aim of constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, measuring the optical depth to reionization, τ , to near the cosmic variance limit, and more. The CLASS Q-band (40 GHz), W-band (90 GHz), and dichroic high frequency (150/220 GHz) telescopes have been observing since June 2016, May 2018, and September 2019, respectively. On-sky optical characterization of the 40 GHz instrument has been published. Here, we present preliminary on-sky measurements of the beams at 90, 150, and 220 GHz, and pointing stability of the 90 and 150/220 GHz telescopes. The average 90, 150, and 220 GHz beams measured from dedicated observations of Jupiter have full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.615±0.019° , 0.378±0.005° , and 0.266 ± 0.008° , respectively. Telescope pointing variations are within a few % of the beam FWHM. 
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  5. Abstract

    This paper presents the design and deployment of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) phase II system. HERA is designed as a staged experiment targeting 21 cm emission measurements of the Epoch of Reionization. First results from the phase I array are published as of early 2022, and deployment of the phase II system is nearing completion. We describe the design of the phase II system and discuss progress on commissioning and future upgrades. As HERA is a designated Square Kilometre Array pathfinder instrument, we also show a number of “case studies” that investigate systematics seen while commissioning the phase II system, which may be of use in the design and operation of future arrays. Common pathologies are likely to manifest in similar ways across instruments, and many of these sources of contamination can be mitigated once the source is identified.

     
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  6. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a polarization-sensitive telescope array located at an altitude of 5,200 m in the Chilean Atacama Desert. CLASS is designed to measure "E-mode" (even parity) and "B-mode" (odd parity) polarization patterns in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) over large angular scales with the aim of improving our understanding of inflation, reionization, and dark matter. CLASS is currently observing with three telescopes covering four frequency bands: one at 40 GHz (Q); one at 90 GHz (W1); and one dichroic system at 150/220 GHz (G). In these proceedings, we discuss the updated design and in-lab characterization of new 90 GHz detectors. The new detectors include design changes to the transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometer architecture, which aim to improve stability and optical efficiency. We assembled and tested four new detector wafers, to replace four modules of the W1 focal plane. These detectors were installed into the W1 telescope, and will achieve first light in the austral winter of 2022. We present electrothermal parameters and bandpass measurements from in-lab dark and optical testing. From in-lab dark tests, we also measure a median NEP of 12.3 aW√ s across all four wafers about the CLASS signal band, which is below the expected photon NEP of 32 aW√ s from the field. We therefore expect the new detectors to be photon noise limited. 
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  7. We present near-field radio holography measurements of the Simons Observatory Large Aperture Telescope Receiver optics. These measurements demonstrate that radio holography of complex millimeter-wave optical systems comprising cryogenic lenses, filters, and feed horns can provide detailed characterization of wave propagation before deployment. We used the measured amplitude and phase, at 4 K, of the receiver near-field beam pattern to predict two key performance parameters: 1) the amount of scattered light that will spill past the telescope to 300 K and 2) the beam pattern expected from the receiver when fielded on the telescope. These cryogenic measurements informed the removal of a filter, which led to improved optical efficiency and reduced sidelobes at the exit of the receiver. Holography measurements of this system suggest that the spilled power past the telescope mirrors will be less than 1%, and the main beam with its near sidelobes are consistent with the nominal telescope design. This is the first time such parameters have been confirmed in the lab prior to deployment of a new receiver. This approach is broadly applicable to millimeter and submillimeter instruments.

     
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  8. Abstract The current and future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments fielding kilopixel arrays of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers require accurate and robust gain calibration methods. We simplify and refactor the standard TES model to directly relate the detector responsivity calibration and optical time constant to the measured TES current I and the applied bias current I b . The calibration method developed for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) TES bolometer arrays relies on current versus voltage ( I – V ) measurements acquired daily prior to CMB observations. By binning Q -band (40 GHz) I – V measurements by optical loading, we find that the gain calibration median standard error within a bin is 0.3%. We test the accuracy of this I – V bin detector calibration method by using the Moon as a photometric standard. The ratio of measured Moon amplitudes between the detector pairs sharing the same feedhorn indicates a TES calibration error of 0.5%. We also find that, for the CLASS Q -band TES array, calibrating the response of individual detectors based solely on the applied TES bias current accurately corrects TES gain variations across time but introduces a bias in the TES calibration from data counts to power units. Since the TES current bias value is set and recorded before every observation, this calibration method can always be applied to the raw TES data and is not subject to I – V data quality or processing errors. 
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  9. Near-field radio holography is a common method for measuring and aligning mirror surfaces for millimeter and sub-millimeter telescopes. In instruments with more than a single mirror, degeneracies arise in the holography measurement, requiring multiple measurements and new fitting methods. We present HoloSim-ML, a Python code for beam simulation and analysis of radio holography data from complex optical systems. This code uses machine learning to efficiently determine the position of hundreds of mirror adjusters on multiple mirrors with few micrometer accuracy. We apply this approach to the example of the Simons Observatory 6 m telescope.

     
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  10. Abstract We describe the measurement and treatment of the telescope beams for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope's fourth data release, DR4. Observations of Uranus are used to measure the central portion (<12 ' ) of the beams to roughly -40 dB of the peak. Such planet maps in intensity are used to construct azimuthally averaged beam profiles, which are fit with a physically motivated model before being transformed into Fourier space. We investigate and quantify a number of percent-level corrections to the beams, all of which are important for precision cosmology. Uranus maps in polarization are used to measure the temperature-to-polarization leakage in the main part of the beams, which is ≲ 1% (2.5%) at 150 GHz (98 GHz). The beams also have polarized sidelobes, which are measured with observations of Saturn and deprojected from the ACT time-ordered data. Notable changes relative to past ACT beam analyses include an improved subtraction of the atmospheric effects from Uranus calibration maps, incorporation of a scattering term in the beam profile model, and refinements to the beam model uncertainties and the main temperature-to-polarization leakage terms in the ACT power spectrum analysis. 
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