skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, June 13 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, June 14 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Title: The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: measurement and analysis of 1D beams for DR4
Abstract We describe the measurement and treatment of the telescope beams for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope's fourth data release, DR4. Observations of Uranus are used to measure the central portion (<12 ' ) of the beams to roughly -40 dB of the peak. Such planet maps in intensity are used to construct azimuthally averaged beam profiles, which are fit with a physically motivated model before being transformed into Fourier space. We investigate and quantify a number of percent-level corrections to the beams, all of which are important for precision cosmology. Uranus maps in polarization are used to measure the temperature-to-polarization leakage in the main part of the beams, which is ≲ 1% (2.5%) at 150 GHz (98 GHz). The beams also have polarized sidelobes, which are measured with observations of Saturn and deprojected from the ACT time-ordered data. Notable changes relative to past ACT beam analyses include an improved subtraction of the atmospheric effects from Uranus calibration maps, incorporation of a scattering term in the beam profile model, and refinements to the beam model uncertainties and the main temperature-to-polarization leakage terms in the ACT power spectrum analysis.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four-telescope array observing the largest angular scales (2≲ ℓ ≲ 200) of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. These scales encode information about reionization and inflation during the early universe. The instrument stability necessary to observe these angular scales from the ground is achieved through the use of a variable-delay polarization modulator as the first optical element in each of the CLASS telescopes. Here, we develop a demodulation scheme used to extract the polarization timestreams from the CLASS data and apply this method to selected data from the first 2 yr of observations by the 40 GHz CLASS telescope. These timestreams are used to measure the 1/ f noise and temperature-to-polarization ( T → P ) leakage present in the CLASS data. We find a median knee frequency for the pair-differenced demodulated linear polarization of 15.12 mHz and a T → P leakage of <3.8 × 10 −4 (95% confidence) across the focal plane. We examine the sources of 1/ f noise present in the data and find the component of 1/ f due to atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) has an amplitude of 203 ± 12 μ K RJ s for 1 mm of PWV when evaluated at 10 mHz; accounting for ∼17% of the 1/ f noise in the central pixels of the focal plane. The low levels of T → P leakage and 1/ f noise achieved through the use of a front-end polarization modulator are requirements for observing of the largest angular scales of the CMB polarization by the CLASS telescopes. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a telescope array that observes the cosmic microwave background over 75% of the sky from the Atacama Desert, Chile, at frequency bands centered near 40, 90, 150, and 220 GHz. This paper describes the CLASS data pipeline and maps for 40 GHz observations conducted from 2016 August to 2022 May. We demonstrate how well the CLASS survey strategy, with rapid (∼10 Hz) front-end modulation, recovers the large-scale Galactic polarization signal from the ground: the mapping transfer function recovers ∼67% (85%) ofEEandBB(VV) power at= 20 and ∼35% (47%) at= 10. We present linear and circular polarization maps over 75% of the sky. Simulations based on the data imply the maps have a white noise level of110μKarcminand correlated noise component rising at low-as−2.4. The transfer-function-corrected low-component is comparable to the white noise at the angular knee frequencies of≈ 18 (linear polarization) and≈ 12 (circular polarization). Finally, we present simulations of the level at which expected sources of systematic error bias the measurements, finding subpercent bias for the Λ cold dark matterEEpower spectra. Bias fromE-to-Bleakage due to the data reduction pipeline and polarization angle uncertainty approaches the expected level for anr= 0.01BBpower spectrum. Improvements to the instrument calibration and the data pipeline will decrease this bias.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    We present estimates of line-of-sight distortion fields derived from the 95 and 150 GHz data taken by BICEP2, BICEP3, and the Keck Array up to the 2018 observing season, leading to cosmological constraints and a study of instrumental and astrophysical systematics. Cosmological constraints are derived from three of the distortion fields concerning gravitational lensing from large-scale structure, polarization rotation from magnetic fields or an axion-like field, and the screening effect of patchy reionization. We measure an amplitude of the lensing power spectrumALϕϕ=0.95±0.20. We constrain polarization rotation, expressed as the coupling constant of a Chern–Simons electromagnetic termgaγ≤ 2.6 × 10−2/HI, whereHIis the inflationary Hubble parameter, and an amplitude of primordial magnetic fields smoothed over 1 MpcB1Mpc≤ 6.6 nG at 95 GHz. We constrain the rms of optical depth fluctuations in a simple “crinkly surface” model of patchy reionization, findingAτ< 0.19 (2σ) for the coherence scale ofLc= 100. We show that all of the distortion fields of the 95 and 150 GHz polarization maps are consistent with simulations including lensed ΛCDM, dust, and noise, with no evidence for instrumental systematics. In some cases, theEBandTBquadratic estimators presented here are more sensitive than our previous map-based null tests at identifying and rejecting spuriousB-modes that might arise from instrumental effects. Finally, we verify that the standard deprojection filtering in the BICEP/Keck data processing is effective at removing temperature to polarization leakage.

    more » « less
  4. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) telescope array surveys 75% of the sky from the Atacama desert in Chile at frequency bands centered near 40, 90, 150, and 220 GHz. CLASS measures the largest-angular scale (θ ≳ 1 ° ) CMB polarization with the aim of constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, measuring the optical depth to reionization, τ , to near the cosmic variance limit, and more. The CLASS Q-band (40 GHz), W-band (90 GHz), and dichroic high frequency (150/220 GHz) telescopes have been observing since June 2016, May 2018, and September 2019, respectively. On-sky optical characterization of the 40 GHz instrument has been published. Here, we present preliminary on-sky measurements of the beams at 90, 150, and 220 GHz, and pointing stability of the 90 and 150/220 GHz telescopes. The average 90, 150, and 220 GHz beams measured from dedicated observations of Jupiter have full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.615±0.019° , 0.378±0.005° , and 0.266 ± 0.008° , respectively. Telescope pointing variations are within a few % of the beam FWHM. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    We present a cross-correlation analysis between1resolution total intensity and polarization observations from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 150 and 220 GHz and 15″ mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) over 107 12.°5 × 12.°5 patches of sky. We detect a spatially isotropic signal in the WISE×ACTTTcross-power spectrum at 30σsignificance that we interpret as the correlation between the cosmic infrared background at ACT frequencies and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from galaxies in WISE, i.e., the cosmic PAH background. Within the Milky Way, the Galactic dustTTspectra are generally well described by power laws inover the range 103<< 104, but there is evidence both for variability in the power-law index and for non-power-law behavior in some regions. We measure a positive correlation between WISE total intensity and ACTE-mode polarization at 1000 <≲ 6000 at >3σin each of 35 distinct ∼100 deg2regions of the sky, suggesting that alignment between Galactic density structures and the local magnetic field persists to subparsec physical scales in these regions. The distribution ofTEamplitudes in thisrange across all 107 regions is biased to positive values, while there is no evidence for such a bias in theTBspectra. This work constitutes the highest-measurements of the Galactic dustTEspectrum to date and indicates that cross-correlation with high-resolution mid-infrared measurements of dust emission is a promising tool for constraining the spatial statistics of dust emission at millimeter wavelengths.

    more » « less