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  1. ABSTRACT Using a quantum-mechanical close-coupling method, we calculate cross-sections for fine-structure excitation and relaxation of Si and S atoms in collisions with atomic hydrogen. Rate coefficients are calculated over a range of temperatures for astrophysical applications. We determine the temperature-dependent critical densities for the relaxation of Si and S in collisions with H and compare these to the critical densities for collisions with electrons. The present calculations should be useful in modelling environments exhibiting the [S i] 25 μm and [S i] 57 μm far-infrared emission lines or where cooling of S and Si by collisions with H is of interest. 
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  2. ABSTRACT Fine-structure transitions can be involved in various processes including photon absorption, charge transfer, and inelastic collisions between ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. We present fine-structure excitation and relaxation cross-sections for the collisions of the first few members of the carbon isoelectronic sequence (C, N+ and O2 +) with atomic hydrogen calculated using quantum-mechanical methods. For C, the scattering theory and computational approach is verified by comparison with previous calculations. The rate coefficients for the collisional processes are obtained. For N+ and O2 +, the transitions correspond to the lines [O iii] 52 μm, [O iii] 88 μm, [N ii] 122 μm, and [N ii] 205 μm, observed in the far-infrared in the local universe and more recently in high-redshift galaxies using radio interferometry. The influence of different potentials on the cross-sections and rate coefficients are demonstrated. 
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  3. Abstract The utility of the far-infrared lines of oxygen as diagnostics of gas outflows and for other applications depends on accurate descriptions of the rate coefficients for excitation (and relaxation) through collisions with electrons and with hydrogen atoms. For O and H collisions, earlier calculations of rate coefficients show discrepancies leading to ambiguity in astrophysical applications. In this note we introduce a methodology that yields consistent sets of rate coefficients for a number of cases. We then apply our method to the O–H system in order to investigate the discrepancies. The present rate coefficients will be of particular interest for modeling observations of astrophysical environments in the far-infrared. 
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